Solutions Manual and Test Bank of Intermediate Accounting Kieso Weygandt Warfield 15th edition

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CHAPTER 21
ACCOUNTING FOR LEASES
MULTIPLE CHOICE—Conceptual
  21.     Major reasons why a company may become involved in leasing to other companies is (are)
a.   interest revenue.
b.   high residual values.
c.   tax incentives.
d.   all of these.
  22.     Which of the following is an advantage of leasing?
a.   Off-balance-sheet financing
b.   Less costly financing
c.   100% financing at fixed rates
d.   All of these
  23.     Which of the following best describes current practice in accounting for leases?
a.   Leases are not capitalized.
b.   Leases similar to installment purchases are capitalized.
c.   All long-term leases are capitalized.
d.   All leases are capitalized.
  24.     While only certain leases are currently accounted for as a sale or purchase, there is theoretic justification for considering all leases to be sales or purchases. The principal reason that supports this idea is that
a.   all leases are generally for the economic life of the property and the residual value of the property at the end of the lease is minimal.
b.   at the end of the lease the property usually can be purchased by the lessee.
c.   a lease reflects the purchase or sale of a quantifiable right to the use of property.
d.   during the life of the lease the lessee can effectively treat the property as if it were owned by the lessee.

S25.     An essential element of a lease conveyance is that the
a.   lessor conveys less than his or her total interest in the property.
b.   lessee provides a sinking fund equal to one year's lease payments.
c.   property that is the subject of the lease agreement must be held for sale by the lessor prior to the drafting of the lease agreement.
d.   term of the lease is substantially equal to the economic life of the leased property.
S26.     What impact does a bargain purchase option have on the present value of the minimum lease payments computed by the lessee?
a.   No impact as the option does not enter into the transaction until the end of the lease term.
b.   The lessee must increase the present value of the minimum lease payments by the present value of the option price.
c.   The lessee must decrease the present value of the minimum lease payments by the present value of the option price.
d.   The minimum lease payments would be increased by the present value of the option price if, at the time of the lease agreement, it appeared certain that the lessee would exercise the option at the end of the lease and purchase the asset at the option price.
P27.     The amount to be recorded as the cost of an asset under capital lease is equal to the
a.   present value of the minimum lease payments.
b.   present value of the minimum lease payments or the fair value of the asset, whichever is lower.
c.   present value of the minimum lease payments plus the present value of any unguaranteed residual value.
d.   carrying value of the asset on the lessor's books.
  28.     The methods of accounting for a lease by the lessee are
a.   operating and capital lease methods.
b.   operating, sales, and capital lease methods.
c.   operating and leveraged lease methods.
d.   none of these.
  29.     Which of the following is a correct statement of one of the capitalization criteria?
a.   The lease transfers ownership of the property to the lessor.
b.   The lease contains a purchase option.
c.   The lease term is equal to or more than 75% of the estimated economic life of the leased property.
d.   The minimum lease payments (excluding executory costs) equal or exceed 90% of the fair value of the leased property.
  30.     Minimum lease payments may include a
a.   penalty for failure to renew.
b.   bargain purchase option.
c.   guaranteed residual value.
d.   any of these.
  31.     Executory costs include
a.   maintenance.
b.   property taxes.
c.   insurance.
d.   all of these.
  32.     In computing the present value of the minimum lease payments, the lessee should
a.   use its incremental borrowing rate in all cases.
b.   use either its incremental borrowing rate or the implicit rate of the lessor, whichever is higher, assuming that the implicit rate is known to the lessee.
c.   use either its incremental borrowing rate or the implicit rate of the lessor, whichever is lower, assuming that the implicit rate is known to the lessee.
d.   none of these.
  33.     In computing depreciation of a leased asset, the lessee should subtract
a.   a guaranteed residual value and depreciate over the term of the lease.
b.   an unguaranteed residual value and depreciate over the term of the lease.
c.   a guaranteed residual value and depreciate over the life of the asset.
d.   an unguaranteed residual value and depreciate over the life of the asset.
  34.     In the earlier years of a lease, from the lessee's perspective, the use of the
a.   capital method will enable the lessee to report higher income, compared to the operating method.
b.   capital method will cause debt to increase, compared to the operating method.
c.   operating method will cause income to decrease, compared to the capital method.
d.   operating method will cause debt to increase, compared to the capital method.
P35.     A lessee with a capital lease containing a bargain purchase option should depreciate the leased asset over the
a.   asset's remaining economic life.
b.   term of the lease.
c.   life of the asset or the term of the lease, whichever is shorter.
d.   life of the asset or the term of the lease, whichever is longer.
  36.     Based solely upon the following sets of circumstances indicated below, which set gives rise to a sales-type or direct-financing lease of a lessor?
    Transfers Ownership      Contains Bargain       Collectibility of Lease        Any Important
      By End Of Lease?        Purchase Option?      Payments Assured?        Uncertainties?
a.                No                                Yes                               Yes                               No
b.               Yes                                No                                 No                                No
c.               Yes                                No                                 No                               Yes
d.                No                                Yes                               Yes                              Yes
  37.     Which of the following would not be included in the Lease Receivable account?
a.   Guaranteed residual value
b.   Unguaranteed residual value
c.   A bargain purchase option
d.   All would be included
  38.     In a lease that is appropriately recorded as a direct-financing lease by the lessor, unearned income
a.   should be amortized over the period of the lease using the effective interest method.
b.   should be amortized over the period of the lease using the straight-line method.
c.   does not arise.
d.   should be recognized at the lease's expiration.

S39.     In order to properly record a direct-financing lease, the lessor needs to know how to calculate the lease receivable. The lease receivable in a direct-financing lease is best defined as
a.   the amount of funds the lessor has tied up in the asset which is the subject of the direct-financing lease.
b.   the difference between the lease payments receivable and the fair value of the leased property.
c.   the present value of minimum lease payments.
d.   the total book value of the asset less any accumulated depreciation recorded by the lessor prior to the lease agreement.
S40.     If the residual value of a leased asset is guaranteed by a third party
a.   it is treated by the lessee as no residual value.
b.   the third party is also liable for any lease payments not paid by the lessee.
c.   the net investment to be recovered by the lessor is reduced.
d.   it is treated by the lessee as an additional payment and by the lessor as realized at the end of the lease term.
  41.     When lessors account for residual values related to leased assets, they
a.   always include the residual value because they always assume the residual value will be realized.
b.   include the unguaranteed residual value in sales revenue.
c.   recognize more gross profit on a sales-type lease with a guaranteed residual value than on a sales-type lease with an unguaranteed residual value.
d.   All of the above are true with regard to lessors and residual values.
  42.     The initial direct costs of leasing
a.   are generally borne by the lessee.
b.   include incremental costs related to internal activities of leasing, and internal costs related to costs paid to external third parties for originating a lease arrangement.
c.   are expensed in the period of the sale under a sales-type lease.
d.   All of the above are true with regard to the initial direct costs of leasing.
S43.     The primary difference between a direct-financing lease and a sales-type lease is the
a.   manner in which rental receipts are recorded as rental income.
b.   amount of the depreciation recorded each year by the lessor.
c.   recognition of the manufacturer's or dealer's profit at the inception of the lease.
d.   allocation of initial direct costs by the lessor to periods benefited by the lease arrangements.
P44.     A lessor with a sales-type lease involving an unguaranteed residual value available to the lessor at the end of the lease term will report sales revenue in the period of inception of the lease at which of the following amounts?
a.   The minimum lease payments plus the unguaranteed residual value.
b.   The present value of the minimum lease payments.
c.   The cost of the asset to the lessor, less the present value of any unguaranteed residual value.
d.   The present value of the minimum lease payments plus the present value of the unguaranteed residual value.

  45.     For a sales-type lease,
a.   the sales price includes the present value of the unguaranteed residual value.
b.   the present value of the guaranteed residual value is deducted to determine the cost of goods sold.
c.   the gross profit will be the same whether the residual value is guaranteed or unguaranteed.
d.   none of these.
  46.     Which of the following statements is correct?
a.   In a direct-financing lease, initial direct costs are added to the net investment in the lease.
b.   In a sales-type lease, initial direct costs are expensed in the year of incurrence.
c.   For operating leases, initial direct costs are deferred and allocated over the lease term.
d.   All of these.
  47.     The Lease Liability account should be disclosed as
a.   all current liabilities.
b.   all noncurrent liabilities.
c.   current portions in current liabilities and the remainder in noncurrent liabilities.
d.   deferred credits.
  48.     To avoid leased asset capitalization, companies can devise lease agreements that fail to satisfy any of the four leasing criteria. Which of the following is not one of the ways to accomplish this goal?
a.   Lessee uses a higher interest rate than that used by lessor.
b.   Set the lease term at something less than 75% of the estimated useful life of the property.
c.   Write in a bargain purchase option.
d.   Use a third party to guarantee the asset’s residual value.
*49.     If the lease in a sale-leaseback transaction meets one of the four leasing criteria and is therefore accounted for as a capital lease, who records the asset on its books and which party records interest expense during the lease period?
     
Party recording the                    Party recording
asset on its books                       interest expense
a.   Seller-lessee                        Purchaser-lessor
b.   Purchaser-lessor                        Seller-lessee
c.   Purchaser-lessor                        Purchaser-lessor
d.   Seller-lessee                        Seller-lessee
*50.     In a sale-leaseback transaction where none of the four leasing criteria are satisfied, which of the following is false?
a.   The seller-lessee removes the asset from its books.
b.   The purchaser-lessor records a gain.
c.   The seller-lessee records the lease as an operating lease.
d.   All of the above are false statements.

*51.     When a company sells property and then leases it back, any gain on the sale should usually be
a.   recognized in the current year.
b.   recognized as a prior period adjustment.
c.   recognized at the end of the lease.
d.   deferred and recognized as income over the term of the lease.
MULTIPLE CHOICE—Computational
  52.     On December 1, 2013, Goetz Corporation leased office space for 10 years at a monthly rental of $90,000. On that date Perez paid the landlord the following amounts:
Rent deposit                                             $   90,000
First month's rent                                             90,000
Last month's rent                                             90,000
Installation of new walls and offices             660,000
                                                                     $930,000
The entire amount of $930,000 was charged to rent expense in 2013. What amount should Goetz have charged to expense for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   $90,000
b.   $95,500
c.   $185,500
d.   $660,000
  53.     On January 1, 2013, Dean Corporation signed a ten-year noncancelable lease for certain machinery. The terms of the lease called for Dean to make annual payments of $200,000 at the end of each year for ten years with title to pass to Dean at the end of this period. The machinery has an estimated useful life of 15 years and no salvage value. Dean uses the straight-line method of depreciation for all of its fixed assets. Dean accordingly accounted for this lease transaction as a capital lease. The lease payments were determined to have a present value of $1,342,016 at an effective interest rate of 8%. With respect to this capitalized lease, Dean should record for 2013
a.   lease expense of $200,000.
b.   interest expense of $89,468 and depreciation expense of $76,136.
c.   interest expense of $107,361 and depreciation expense of $89,468.
d.   interest expense of $91,362 and depreciation expense of $134,202.

Use the following information for questions 54 through 59. (Annuity tables on page 21-25.)
On January 1, 2013, Yancey, Inc. signs a 10-year noncancelable lease agreement to lease a storage building from Holt Warehouse Company. Collectibility of lease payments is reasonably predictable and no important uncertainties surround the amount of costs yet to be incurred by the lessor. The following information pertains to this lease agreement.
(a)  The agreement requires equal rental payments at the end of each year.
(b)  The fair value of the building on January 1, 2013 is $4,000,000; however, the book value to Holt is $3,300,000.
(c)  The building has an estimated economic life of 10 years, with no residual value. Yancey depreciates similar buildings on the straight-line method.
(d)  At the termination of the lease, the title to the building will be transferred to the lessee.
(e) Yancey's incremental borrowing rate is 11% per year. Holt Warehouse Co. set the annual rental to insure a 10% rate of return. The implicit rate of the lessor is known by Yancey, Inc.
(f)   The yearly rental payment includes $10,000 of executory costs related to taxes on the property.
  54.     What is the amount of the minimum annual lease payment? (Rounded to the nearest dollar.)
a.   $250,981
b.   $640,981
c.   $650,981
d.   $660,981
  55.     What is the amount of the total annual lease payment?
a.   $250,981
b.   $640,981
c.   $650,981
d.   $660,981
  56.     From the lessee's viewpoint, what type of lease exists in this case?
a.   Sales-type lease
b.   Sale-leaseback
c.   Capital lease
d.   Operating lease
  57.     From the lessor's viewpoint, what type of lease is involved?
a.   Sales-type lease
b.   Sale-leaseback
c.   Direct-financing lease
d.   Operating lease
  58.     Yancey, Inc. would record depreciation expense on this storage building in 2013 of (Rounded to the nearest dollar.)
a.   $0.
b.   $330,000.
c.   $400,000.
d.   $650,981.
  59.     If the lease were nonrenewable, there was no purchase option, title to the building does not pass to the lessee at termination of the lease and the lease were only for eight years, what type of lease would this be for the lessee?
a.   Sales-type lease
b.   Direct-financing lease
c.   Operating lease
d.   Capital lease
  60.     Metcalf Company leases a machine from Vollmer Corp. under an agreement which meets the criteria to be a capital lease for Metcalf. The six-year lease requires payment of $170,000 at the beginning of each year, including $25,000 per year for maintenance, insurance, and taxes. The incremental borrowing rate for the lessee is 10%; the lessor's implicit rate is 8% and is known by the lessee. The present value of an annuity due of 1 for six years at 10% is 4.79079. The present value of an annuity due of 1 for six years at 8% is 4.99271. Metcalf should record the leased asset at
a.   $848,760.
b.   $814,435.
c.   $723,943.
d.   $694,665.
  61.     On December 31, 2013, Lang Corporation leased a ship from Fort Company for an eight-year period expiring December 30, 2021. Equal annual payments of $400,000 are due on December 31 of each year, beginning with December 31, 2013. The lease is properly classified as a capital lease on Lang 's books. The present value at December 31, 2013 of the eight lease payments over the lease term discounted at 10% is $2,347,370. Assuming all payments are made on time, the amount that should be reported by Lang Corporation as the total obligation under capital leases on its December 31, 2014 balance sheet is
a.   $2,182,108.
b.   $2,000,318.
c.   $1,742,107.
d.   $2,400,000.
Use the following information for questions 62 and 63.
On January 1, 2013, Sauder Corporation signed a five-year noncancelable lease for equipment. The terms of the lease called for Sauder to make annual payments of $200,000 at the beginning of each year for five years with title to pass to Sauder at the end of this period. The equipment has an estimated useful life of 7 years and no salvage value. Sauder uses the straight-line method of depreciation for all of its fixed assets. Sauder accordingly accounts for this lease transaction as a capital lease. The minimum lease payments were determined to have a present value of $833,972 at an effective interest rate of 10%.
  62.     In 2013, Sauder should record interest expense of
a.   $63,397.
b.   $116,604.
c.   $83,396.
d.   $136,604.
  63.     In 2014, Sauder should record interest expense of
a.   $43,396.
b.   $49,732.
c.   $63,396.
d.   $69,736.
  64.     On December 31, 2013, Kuhn Corporation leased a plane from Bell Company for an eight-year period expiring December 30, 2021. Equal annual payments of $225,000 are due on December 31 of each year, beginning with December 31, 2013. The lease is properly classified as a capital lease on Kuhn’s books. The present value at December 31, 2013 of the eight lease payments over the lease term discounted at 10% is $1,320,396. Assuming the first payment is made on time, the amount that should be reported by Kuhn Corporation as the lease liability on its December 31, 2013 balance sheet is
a.   $1,320,396.
b.   $1,227,435.
c.   $1,188,357.
d.   $1,095,396.
Use the following information for questions 65 and 66.
On January 1, 2013, Ogleby Corporation signed a five-year noncancelable lease for equipment. The terms of the lease called for Ogleby to make annual payments of $120,000 at the end of each year for five years with title to pass to Ogleby at the end of this period. The equipment has an estimated useful life of 7 years and no salvage value. Ogleby uses the straight-line method of depreciation for all of its fixed assets. Ogleby accordingly accounts for this lease transaction as a capital lease. The minimum lease payments were determined to have a present value of $454,896 at an effective interest rate of 10%.
  65.     With respect to this capitalized lease, for 2013 Ogleby should record
a.   rent expense of $120,000.
b.   interest expense of $45,490 and depreciation expense of $90,978.
c.   interest expense of $45,490 and depreciation expense of $64,985.
d.   interest expense of $60,000 and depreciation expense of $90,978.
  66.     With respect to this capitalized lease, for 2014 Ogleby should record
a.   interest expense of $45,490 and depreciation expense of $64,985.
b.   interest expense of $40,938 and depreciation expense of $64,985.
c.   interest expense of $38,039 and depreciation expense of $64,985.
d.   interest expense of $28,938 and depreciation expense of $64,985.
  67.     Emporia Corporation is a lessee with a capital lease. The asset is recorded at $630,000 and has an economic life of 8 years. The lease term is 5 years. The asset is expected to have a fair value of $210,000 at the end of 5 years, and a fair value of $70,000 at the end of 8 years. The lease agreement provides for the transfer of title of the asset to the lessee at the end of the lease term. What amount of depreciation expense would the lessee record for the first year of the lease?
a.   $126,000
b.   $112,000
c.   $84,000
d.   $70,000

  68.     Pisa, Inc. leased equipment from Tower Company under a four-year lease requiring equal annual payments of $129,057, with the first payment due at lease inception. The lease does not transfer ownership, nor is there a bargain purchase option. The equipment has a 4-year useful life and no salvage value. If Pisa, Inc.’s incremental borrowing rate is 10% and the rate implicit in the lease (which is known by Pisa, Inc.) is 8%, what is the amount recorded for the leased asset at the lease inception?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity
            8%, 4 periods             3.57710                     3.31213
            10%, 4 periods           3.48685                    3.16986
a.   $461,650
b.   $409,092
c.   $427,453
d.   $450,000
  69.     Pisa, Inc. leased equipment from Tower Company under a four-year lease requiring equal annual payments of $129,057, with the first payment due at lease inception. The lease does not transfer ownership, nor is there a bargain purchase option. The equipment has a 4-year useful life and no salvage value. Pisa, Inc.’s incremental borrowing rate is 10% and the rate implicit in the lease (which is known by Pisa, Inc.) is 8%. Assuming that this lease is properly classified as a capital lease, what is the amount of interest expense recorded by Pisa, Inc. in the first year of the asset’s life?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity
            8%, 4 periods              3.57710                   3.31213
            10%, 4 periods            3.48685                   3.16986
a.   $0
b.   $36,931
c.   $26,607
d.   $34,197
  70.     Pisa, Inc. leased equipment from Tower Company under a four-year lease requiring equal annual payments of $129,057, with the first payment due at lease inception. The lease does not transfer ownership, nor is there a bargain purchase option. The equipment has a 4 year useful life and no salvage value. Pisa, Inc.’s incremental borrowing rate is 10% and the rate implicit in the lease (which is known by Pisa, Inc.) is 8%. Assuming that this lease is properly classified as a capital lease, what is the amount of principal reduction recorded when the second lease payment is made in Year 2?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity
            8%, 4 periods               3.57710                  3.31213
            10%, 4 periods             3.48685                  3.16986
a.   $129,057
b.   $92,125
c.   $94,860
d.   $102,450

  71.     Pisa, Inc. leased equipment from Tower Company under a four-year lease requiring equal annual payments of $129,057, with the first payment due at lease inception. The lease does not transfer ownership, nor is there a bargain purchase option. The equipment has a 4-year useful life and no salvage value. Pisa, Inc.’s incremental borrowing rate is 10% and the rate implicit in the lease (which is known by Pisa, Inc.) is 8%. Pisa, Inc. uses the straight-line method to depreciate similar assets. What is the amount of depreciation expense recorded by Pisa, Inc. in the first year of the asset’s life?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity
            8%, 4 periods              3.57710                    3.31213
            10%, 4 periods            3.48685                    3.16986
a.   $0 because the asset is depreciated by Tower Company.
b.   $106,863
c.   $115,413
d.   $112,500
  72.     Haystack, Inc. manufactures machinery used in the mining industry. On January 2, 2013 it leased equipment with a cost of $400,000 to Silver Point Co. The 5-year lease calls for a 10% down payment and equal annual payments at the end of each year. The equipment has an expected useful life of 5 years. Silver Point’s incremental borrowing rate is 10%, and it depreciates similar equipment using the double-declining balance method. The selling price of the equipment is $650,000, and the rate implicit in the lease is 8%, which is known to Silver Point Co. What is the amount of interest expense recorded by Silver Point Co. for the year ended December 31, 2013?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity          PV Single Sum
            8%, 5 periods              4.31213                    3.99271                       .68508
            10%, 5 periods            4.16986                    3.79079                       .62092
a.   $58,500
b.   $46,800
c.   $52,000
d.   $65,000
  73.     Haystack, Inc. manufactures machinery used in the mining industry. On January 2, 2013 it leased equipment with a cost of $400,000 to Silver Point Co. The 5-year lease calls for a 10% down payment and equal annual payments of $146,518 at the end of each year. The equipment has an expected useful life of 5 years. Silver Point’s incremental borrowing rate is 10%, and it depreciates similar equipment using the double-declining balance method. The selling price of the equipment is $650,000, and the rate implicit in the lease is 8%, which is known to Silver Point Co. What is the book value of the leased asset at December 31, 2013?
a.   $650,000
b.   $520,000
c.   $390,000
d.   $416,000

  74.     Haystack, Inc. manufactures machinery used in the mining industry. On January 2, 2013 it leased equipment with a cost of $400,000 to Silver Point Co. The 5-year lease calls for a 10% down payment and equal annual payments at the end of each year. The equipment has an expected useful life of 5 years. If the selling price of the equipment is $650,000, and the rate implicit in the lease is 8%, what are the equal annual payments?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity          PV Single Sum
            8%, 5 periods              4.31213                   3.99271                        .68508
            10%, 5 periods            4.16986                   3.79079                        .62092
a.   $146,517
b.   $135,662
c.   $151,644
d.   $162,796
Use the following information for questions 75 through 80. (Annuity tables on page 21-25.)
Alt Corporation enters into an agreement with Yates Rentals Co. on January 1, 2013 for the purpose of leasing a machine to be used in its manufacturing operations. The following data pertain to the agreement:
(a)   The term of the noncancelable lease is 3 years with no renewal option. Payments of $310,426 are due on December 31 of each year.
(b)   The fair value of the machine on January 1, 2013, is $800,000. The machine has a remaining economic life of 10 years, with no salvage value. The machine reverts to the lessor upon the termination of the lease.
(c)   Alt depreciates all machinery it owns on a straight-line basis.
(d)   Alt's incremental borrowing rate is 10% per year. Alt does not have knowledge of the 8% implicit rate used by Yates.
(e)   Immediately after signing the lease, Yates finds out that Alt Corp. is the defendant in a suit which is sufficiently material to make collectibility of future lease payments doubtful.
  75.     What type of lease is this from Alt Corporation's viewpoint?
a.   Operating lease
b.   Capital lease
c.   Sales-type lease
d.   Direct-financing lease
  76.     If Alt accounts for the lease as an operating lease, what expenses will be recorded as a consequence of the lease during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   Depreciation Expense
b.   Rent Expense
c.   Interest Expense
d.   Depreciation Expense and Interest Expense
  77.     If the present value of the future lease payments is $800,000 at January 1, 2013, what is the amount of the reduction in the lease liability for Alt Corp. in the second full year of the lease if Alt Corp. accounts for the lease as a capital lease? (Rounded to the nearest dollar.)
a.   $230,426
b.   $246,426
c.   $253,469
d.   $266,140

  78.     From the viewpoint of Yates, what type of lease agreement exists?
a.   Operating lease
b.   Capital lease
c.   Sales-type lease
d.   Direct-financing lease
  79.     If Yates records this lease as a direct-financing lease, what amount would be recorded as Lease Receivable at the inception of the lease?
a.   $310,426
b.   $771,982
c.   $800,000
d.   $931,276
  80.     Which of the following lease-related revenue and expense items would be recorded by Yates if the lease is accounted for as an operating lease?
a.   Rent Revenue
b.   Interest Income
c.   Depreciation Expense
d.   Rent Revenue and Depreciation Expense
  81.     Hook Company leased equipment to Emley Company on July 1, 2012, for a one-year period expiring June 30, 2013, for $60,000 a month. On July 1, 2013, Hook leased this piece of equipment to Terry Company for a three-year period expiring June 30, 2016, for $75,000 a month. The original cost of the equipment was $4,800,000. The equipment, which has been continually on lease since July 1, 2008, is being depreciated on a straight-line basis over an eight-year period with no salvage value. Assuming that both the lease to Emley and the lease to Terry are appropriately recorded as operating leases for accounting purposes, what is the amount of income (expense) before income taxes that each would record as a result of the above facts for the year ended December 31, 2013?
         Hook            Emley              Terry  
a.   $210,000         $(360,000)             $(450,000)
b.   $210,000         $(360,000)             $(750,000)
c.   $810,000         $(60,000)               $(150,000)
d.   $810,000         $(660,000)             $(450,000)
Use the following information for questions 82 and 83.
Hull Co. leased equipment to Riggs Company on May 1, 2013. At that time the collectibility of the minimum lease payments was not reasonably predictable. The lease expires on May 1, 2014. Riggs could have bought the equipment from Hull for $4,000,000 instead of leasing it. Hull's accounting records showed a book value for the equipment on May 1, 2010, of $3,500,000. Hull's depreciation on the equipment in 2013 was $450,000. During 2013, Riggs paid $900,000 in rentals to Hull for the 8-month period. Hull incurred maintenance and other related costs under the terms of the lease of $80,000 in 2013. After the lease with Riggs expires, Hull will lease the equipment to another company for two years.
  82.     Ignoring income taxes, the amount of expense incurred by Riggs from this lease for the year ended December 31, 2013, should be
a.   $370,000.
b.   $450,000.
c.   $820,000.
d.   $900,000.
  83.     The income before income taxes derived by Hull from this lease for the year ended December 31, 2013, should be
a.   $370,000.
b.   $450,000.
c.   $820,000.
d.   $900,000.
  84.     On January 2, 2013, Gold Star Leasing Company leases equipment to Brick Co. with 5 equal annual payments of $80,000 each, payable beginning December 31, 2013. Brick Co. agrees to guarantee the $50,000 residual value of the asset at the end of the lease term. Brick’s incremental borrowing rate is 10%, however it knows that Gold Star’s implicit interest rate is 8%. What journal entry would Gold Star make at January 2, 2013 assuming this is a direct–financing lease?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity          PV Single Sum
            8%, 5 periods              4.31213                   3.99271                        .68508
            10%, 5 periods            4.16986                   3.79079                        .62092
a.   Lease Receivable         450,000
         Equipment                         450,000
b.   Lease Receivable         319,416
      Loss                130,584
         Equipment                         450,000
c.   Lease Receivable         334,310
         Equipment                         334,310
d.   Lease Receivable         353,671
         Equipment                         353,671
  85.     Mays Company has a machine with a cost of $600,000 which also is its fair value on the date the machine is leased to Park Company. The lease is for 6 years and the machine is estimated to have an unguaranteed residual value of $60,000. If the lessor's interest rate implicit in the lease is 12%, the six beginning-of-the-year lease payments would be
a.   $138,541.
b.   $123,698.
c.   $117,270.
d.   $100,000.

  86.     On January 2, 2013, Gold Star Leasing Company leases equipment to Brick Co. with 5 equal annual payments of $80,000 each, payable beginning December 31, 2013. Brick Co. agrees to guarantee the $50,000 residual value of the asset at the end of the lease term. Brick’s incremental borrowing rate is 10%, however it knows that Gold Star’s implicit interest rate is 8%. What journal entry would Brick Co. make at December 31, 2013 to record the first lease payment?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity          PV Single Sum
            8%, 5 periods              4.31213                   3.99271                         .68508
            10%, 5 periods            4.16986                   3.79079                         .62092
a.   Lease Liability        80,000
         Cash                          80,000
b.   Lease Liability        51,706
      Interest Expense           28,294
         Cash                          80,000
c.   Lease Liability        46,570  
      Interest Expense           33,430  
         Cash                          80,000
d.   Lease Liability        16,570  
      Interest Expense           33,430  
         Cash                          50,000
  87.     On January 2, 2012, Gold Star Leasing Company leases equipment to Brick Co. with 5 equal annual payments of $80,000 each, payable beginning December 31, 2012. Brick Co. agrees to guarantee the $50,000 residual value of the asset at the end of the lease term. Brick’s incremental borrowing rate is 10%, however it knows that Gold Star’s implicit interest rate is 8%. What journal entry would Brick Co. make at December 31, 2013 to record the second lease payment?
                            PV Annuity Due   PV Ordinary Annuity          PV Single Sum
            8%, 5 periods              4.31213                   3.99271                        .68508
            10%, 5 periods            4.16986                   3.79079                        .62092
a.   Lease Liability 80,000
         Cash                   80,000
b.   Lease Liability 51,226
      Interest Expense    28,774
         Cash                   80,000
c.   Lease Liability 55,843
      Interest Expense    24,157
         Cash                   80,000
d.   Lease Liability 47,520
      Interest Expense    32,480
         Cash                   80,000

  88.     Geary Co. leased a machine to Dains Co. Assume the lease payments were made on the basis that the residual value was guaranteed and Geary gets to recognize all the profits, and at the end of the lease term, before the lessee transfers the asset to the lessor, the leased asset and obligation accounts have the following balances:
Leased equipment                                                               $400,000
Less accumulated depreciation--capital lease                    384,000
                                                                                            $  16,000
Interest payable                                                                    $  1,520
Lease liability                                                                          14,480
                                                                                               $16,000
If, at the end of the lease, the fair value of the residual value is $7,800, what gain or loss should Geary record?
a.   $6,680 gain
b.   $6,280 loss
c.   $8,200 loss
d.   $7,800 gain
  89.     Harter Company leased machinery to Stine Company on July 1, 2013, for a ten-year period expiring June 30, 2023. Equal annual payments under the lease are $125,000 and are due on July 1 of each year. The first payment was made on July 1, 2013. The rate of interest used by Harter and Stine is 9%. The cash selling price of the machinery is $875,000 and the cost of the machinery on Harter's accounting records was $775,000. Assuming that the lease is appropriately recorded as a sale for accounting purposes by Harter, what amount of interest revenue would Harter record for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   $78,750
b.   $67,500
c.   $33,750
d.   $0
  90.     Pye Company leased equipment to the Polan Company on July 1, 2013, for a ten-year period expiring June 30, 2023. Equal annual payments under the lease are $120,000 and are due on July 1 of each year. The first payment was made on July 1, 2013. The rate of interest contemplated by Pye and Polan is 9%. The cash selling price of the equipment is $840,000 and the cost of the equipment on Pye's accounting records was $744,000. Assuming that the lease is appropriately recorded as a sale for accounting purposes by Eby, what is the amount of profit on the sale and the interest revenue that Pye would record for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   $96,000 and $75,600
b.   $96,000 and $64,800
c.   $96,000 and $32,400
d.   $0 and $0
Use the following information for questions 91 and 92.
Metro Company, a dealer in machinery and equipment, leased equipment to Sands, Inc., on 
July 1, 2013. The lease is appropriately accounted for as a sale by Metro and as a purchase by Sands. The lease is for a 10-year period (the useful life of the asset) expiring June 30, 2023. The first of 10 equal annual payments of $828,000 was made on July 1, 2013. Metro had purchased the equipment for $5,200,000 on January 1, 2013, and established a list selling price of $7,200,000 on the equipment. Assume that the present value at July 1, 2013, of the rent payments over the lease term discounted at 8% (the appropriate interest rate) was $6,000,000.
  91.     Assuming that Sands, Inc. uses straight-line depreciation, what is the amount of deprecia-tion and interest expense that Sands should record for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   $300,000 and $206,880
b.   $300,000 and $240,000
c.   $360,000 and $206,880
d.   $360,000 and $240,000
  92.     What is the amount of profit on the sale and the amount of interest income that Metro should record for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   $0 and $206,880
b.   $800,000 and $206,880
c.   $800,000 and $240,000
d.   $1,200,000 and $480,000
  93.     Roman Company leased equipment from Koenig Company on July 1, 2013, for an eight-year period expiring June 30, 2021. Equal annual payments under the lease are $500,000 and are due on July 1 of each year. The first payment was made on July 1, 2013. The rate of interest contemplated by Roman and Koenig is 8%. The cash selling price of the equipment is $3,103,125 and the cost of the equipment on Koenig's accounting records was $2,750,000. Assuming that the lease is appropriately recorded as a sale for accounting purposes by Koenig, what is the amount of profit on the sale and the interest income that Koenig would record for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a.   $0 and $0
b.   $0 and $104,125
c.   $353,125 and $104,125
d.   $353,125 and $124,125
Use the following information for questions 94 through 98.
Gage Co. purchases land and constructs a service station and car wash for a total of $360,000. At January 2, 2012, when construction is completed, the facility and land on which it was constructed are sold to a major oil company for $400,000 and immediately leased from the oil company by Gage. Fair value of the land at time of the sale was $40,000. The lease is a 10-year, noncancelable lease. Gage uses straight-line depreciation for its other various business holdings. The economic life of the facility is 15 years with zero salvage value. Title to the facility and land will pass to Gage at termination of the lease. A partial amortization schedule for this lease is as follows:
                                           Payments               Interest                                          Amortization     Balance   
            Jan. 2, 2012                                                                                                  $400,000.00
            Dec. 31, 2012       $65,098.13            $40,000.00            $25,098.13            374,901.87
            Dec. 31, 2013         65,098.13              37,490.19              27,607.94            347,293.93
            Dec. 31, 2014         65,098.13              34,729.39              30,368.74            316,925.19
  94.     From the viewpoint of the lessor, what type of lease is involved above?
a.   Sales-type lease
b.   Sale-leaseback
c.   Direct-financing lease
d.   Operating lease

  95.     What is the discount rate implicit in the amortization schedule presented above?
a.   12%
b.   10%
c.   8%
d.   6%
  96.     The total lease-related expenses recognized by the lessee during 2013 is which of the following?  (Rounded to the nearest dollar.)
a.   $64,000
b.   $65,098
c.   $73,490
d.   $61,490
  97.     What is the amount of the lessee's liability to the lessor after the December 31, 2014 payment?  (Rounded to the nearest dollar.)
a.   $400,000
b.   $374,902
c.   $347,294
d.   $316,925
*98.     The total lease-related income recognized by the lessee during 2013 is which of the following?
a.   $ -0-
b.   $2,667
c.   $4,000
d.   $40,000
*99.     On June 30, 2013, Falk Co. sold equipment to an unaffiliated company for $1,400,000. The equipment had a book value of $1,260,000 and a remaining useful life of 10 years. That same day, Falk leased back the equipment at $14,000 per month for 5 years with no option to renew the lease or repurchase the equipment. Falk's rent expense for this equipment for the year ended December 31, 2013, should be
a.   $168,000.
b.   $84,000.
c.   $70,000.
d.   $56,000.

Future Value of Ordinary Annuity of 1
                 Period           5%               6%               8%               10%             12% 
                      1           1.00000           1.00000           1.00000           1.00000           1.00000
                      2           2.05000           2.06000           2.08000           2.10000           2.12000
                      3           3.15250           3.18360           3.24640           3.31000           3.37440
                      4           4.31013           4.37462           4.50611           4.64100           4.77933
                      5           5.52563           5.63709           5.86660           6.10510           6.35285
                      6           6.80191           6.97532           7.33592           7.71561           8.11519
                      7           8.14201           8.39384           8.92280           9.48717         10.08901
                      8           9.54911           9.89747         10.63663         11.43589         12.29969
                      9         11.02656         11.49132         12.48756         13.57948         14.77566
                    10         12.57789         13.18079         14.48656         15.93743         17.54874
Present Value of an Ordinary Annuity of 1
                 Period           5%               6%               8%               10%             12% 
                      1             .95238             .94340             .92593             .90909             .89286
                      2           1.85941           1.83339           1.78326           1.73554           1.69005
                      3           2.72325           2.67301           2.57710           2.48685           2.40183
                      4           3.54595           3.46511           3.31213           3.16986           3.03735
                      5           4.32948           4.21236           3.99271           3.79079           3.60478
                      6           5.07569           4.91732           4.62288           4.35526           4.11141
                      7           5.78637           5.58238           5.20637           4.86842           4.56376
                      8           6.46321           6.20979           5.74664           5.33493           4.96764
                      9           7.10782           6.80169           6.24689           5.75902           5.32825
                    10           7.72173           7.36009           6.71008           6.14457           5.65022
MULTIPLE CHOICE—CPA Adapted
100.     Lease A does not contain a bargain purchase option, but the lease term is equal to 90 percent of the estimated economic life of the leased property. Lease B does not transfer ownership of the property to the lessee by the end of the lease term, but the lease term is equal to 75 percent of the estimated economic life of the leased property. How should the lessee classify these leases?
           Lease A                   Lease B   
a.   Operating lease                Capital lease
b.   Operating lease                Operating lease
c.   Capital lease                     Capital lease
d.   Capital lease                     Operating lease
101.     On December 31, 2013, Burton, Inc. leased machinery with a fair value of $1,050,000 from Cey Rentals Co. The agreement is a six-year noncancelable lease requiring annual payments of $200,000 beginning December 31, 2013. The lease is appropriately accounted for by Burton as a capital lease. Burton's incremental borrowing rate is 11%. Burton knows the interest rate implicit in the lease payments is 10%.
The present value of an annuity due of 1 for 6 years at 10% is 4.7908.
The present value of an annuity due of 1 for 6 years at 11% is 4.6959.

In its December 31, 2013 balance sheet, Burton should report a lease liability of
a.   $758,160.
b.   $850,000.
c.   $939,180.
d.   $958,160.
102.     On December 31, 2012, Harris Co. leased a machine from Catt, Inc. for a five-year period. Equal annual payments under the lease are $840,000 (including $40,000 annual executory costs) and are due on December 31 of each year. The first payment was made on December 31, 2012, and the second payment was made on December 31, 2013. The five lease payments are discounted at 10% over the lease term. The present value of minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease and before the first annual payment was $3,336,000. The lease is appropriately accounted for as a capital lease by Harris. In its December 31, 2013 balance sheet, Harris should report a lease liability of
a.   $2,536,000.
b.   $2,496,000.
c.   $2,282,400.
d.   $1,989,600.
103.     A lessee had a ten-year capital lease requiring equal annual payments. The reduction of the lease liability in year 2 should equal
a.   the current liability shown for the lease at the end of year 1.
b.   the current liability shown for the lease at the end of year 2.
c.   the reduction of the lease liability in year 1.
d.   one-tenth of the original lease liability.
Use the following information for questions 104 and 105.
On January 2, 2013, Hernandez, Inc. signed a ten-year noncancelable lease for a heavy duty drill press. The lease stipulated annual payments of $250,000 starting at the end of the first year, with title passing to Hernandez at the expiration of the lease. Hernandez treated this transaction as a capital lease. The drill press has an estimated useful life of 15 years, with no salvage value. Hernandez uses straight-line depreciation for all of its plant assets. Aggregate lease payments were determined to have a present value of $1,500,000, based on implicit interest of 10%.
104.     In its 2013 income statement, what amount of interest expense should Hernandez report from this lease transaction?
a.   $0
b.   $93,750
c.   $125,000
d.   $150,000
105.     In its 2013 income statement, what amount of depreciation expense should Hernandez report from this lease transaction?
a.   $250,000
b.   $200,000
c.   $150,000
d.   $100,000

106.     In a lease that is recorded as a sales-type lease by the lessor, interest revenue
a.   should be recognized in full as revenue at the lease's inception.
b.   should be recognized over the period of the lease using the straight-line method.
c.   should be recognized over the period of the lease using the effective interest method.
d.   does not arise.
107.     Torrey Co. manufactures equipment that is sold or leased. On December 31, 2013, Torrey leased equipment to Dalton for a five-year period ending December 31, 2018, at which date ownership of the leased asset will be transferred to Dalton. Equal payments under the lease are $440,000 (including $40,000 executory costs) and are due on December 31 of each year. The first payment was made on December 31, 2013. Collectibility of the remaining lease payments is reasonably assured, and Torrey has no material cost uncertainties. The normal sales price of the equipment is $1,540,000, and cost is $1,200,000. For the year ended December 31, 2013, what amount of income should Torrey realize from the lease transaction?
a.   $340,000
b.   $440,000
c.   $460,000
d.   $660,000
*108.    Jamar Co. sold its headquarters building at a gain, and simultaneously leased back the building. The lease was reported as a capital lease. At the time of the sale, the gain should be reported as
a.   operating income.
b.   an extraordinary item, net of income tax.
c.   a separate component of stockholders' equity.
d.   a deferred gain.
*109.    On December 31, 2013, Haden Corp. sold a machine to Ryan and simultaneously leased it back for one year. Pertinent information at this date follows:
Sales price                                                                                 $900,000
Carrying amount                                                                          825,000
Present value of reasonable lease rentals
     ($7,500 for 12 months @ 12%)                                                 85,000
Estimated remaining useful life                                                  12 years
In Haden’s December 31, 2013 balance sheet, the deferred profit from the sale of this machine should be
a.   $85,000.
b.   $75,000.
c.   $10,000.
d.   $0.
EXERCISES
Ex. 21-110—Capital lease (Essay).

Explain the procedures used by the lessee to account for a capital lease.
Ex. 21-111—Capital lease amortization and journal entries.

Hughey Co. as lessee records a capital lease of machinery on January 1, 2013. The seven annual lease payments of $525,000 are made at the end of each year. The present value of the lease payments at 10% is $2,556,000. Hughey uses the effective-interest method of amortization and sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation (no residual value).
Instructions (Round to the nearest dollar.)
(a)   Prepare an amortization table for 2013 and 2014.
(b)   Prepare all of Hughey's journal entries for 2013.
Ex. 21-112—Operating lease.

Maris Co. purchased a machine on January 1, 2013, for $1,200,000 for the express purpose of leasing it. The machine is expected to have a five-year life, no salvage value, and be depreciated on a straight-line monthly basis. On April 1, 2013, under a cancelable lease, Maris leased the machine to Dunbar Company for $360,000 a year for a four-year period ending March 31, 2017. Maris incurred total maintenance and other related costs under the provisions of the lease of $15,000 relating to the year ended December 31, 2013. Harley paid $360,000 to Maris on April 1, 2013.
Instructions       [Assume the operating method is appropriate for parts (a) and (b).]
(a)    Under the operating method, what should be the income before income taxes derived by Maris Co. from this lease for the year ended December 31, 2013?
(b)    What should be the amount of rent expense incurred by Dunbar from this lease for the year ended December 31, 2013?
Ex. 21-113—Lease criteria for classification by lessor.

What are the criteria that must be satisfied for a lessor to classify a lease as a direct-financing or sales-type lease?
Ex. 21-114—Direct-financing lease (essay).

Explain the procedures used to account for a direct-financing lease.
Ex. 21-115—Lessor accounting—sales-type lease.

Hayes Corp. is a manufacturer of truck trailers. On January 1, 2013, Hayes Corp. leases ten trailers to Lester Company under a six-year noncancelable lease agreement. The following information about the lease and the trailers is provided:
1.      Equal annual payments that are due on December 31 each year provide Hayes Corp. with an 8% return on net investment (present value factor for 6 periods at 8% is 4.62288).
2.      Titles to the trailers pass to Lester at the end of the lease.
3.      The fair value of each trailer is $50,000. The cost of each trailer to Hayes Corp. is $45,000. Each trailer has an expected useful life of nine years.
4.      Collectibility of the lease payments is reasonably predictable and there are no important uncertainties surrounding the amount of costs yet to be incurred by Hayes Corp.
Instructions
(a)    What type of lease is this for the lessor? Discuss.
(b)    Calculate the annual lease payment. (Round to nearest dollar.)
(c)    Prepare a lease amortization schedule for Hayes Corp. for the first three years.
(d)    Prepare the journal entries for the lessor for 2013 and 2014 to record the lease agreement, the receipt of the lease rentals, and the recognition of income (assume the use of a perpetual inventory method and round all amounts to the nearest dollar).

*Ex. 21-116—Lessee and lessor accounting (sale-leaseback).

On January 1, 2013, Morris Company sells land to Lopez Corporation for $8,000,000, and immediately leases the land back. The following information relates to this transaction:
1.   The term of the noncancelable lease is 20 years and the title transfers to Morris Company at the end of the lease term.
2.   The land has a cost basis of $6,720,000 to Morris.
3.   The lease agreement calls for equal rental payments of $814,816 at the end of each year.
4.   The land has a fair value of $8,000,000 on January 1, 2013.
5.   The incremental borrowing rate of Morris Company is 10%. Morris is aware that Lopez Corporation set the annual rentals to ensure a rate of return of 8%.
6.   Morris Company pays all executory costs which total $255,000 in 2013.

*Ex. 21-116  (cont.)
7.   Collectibility of the rentals is reasonably predictable, and there are no important uncertainties surrounding the costs yet to be incurred by the lessor.
Instructions
(a)    Prepare the journal entries for the entire year 2013 on the books of Morris Company to reflect the above sale and lease transactions (include a partial amortization schedule and round all amounts to the nearest dollar.)
(b)    Prepare the journal entries for the entire year 2013 on the books of Lopez Corporation to reflect the above purchase and lease transactions.
*Ex. 21-117—Sale-leaseback.

On January 1, 2013, Hester Co. sells machinery to Beck Corp. at its fair value of $960,000 and leases it back. The machinery had a carrying value of $840,000, the lease is for 10 years and the implicit rate is 10%. The lease payments of $142,000 start on January 1, 2013. Hester uses straight-line depreciation and there is no residual value.
Instructions
(a)     Prepare all of Hester's entries for 2013.
(b)     Prepare all of Beck's entries for 2013.

PROBLEMS
Pr. 21-118—Lessee accounting—capital lease.

Eubank Company, as lessee, enters into a lease agreement on July 1, 2012, for equipment. The following data are relevant to the lease agreement:
1.   The term of the noncancelable lease is 4 years, with no renewal option. Payments of $845,378 are due on June 30 of each year.
2.   The fair value of the equipment on July 1, 2012 is $2,800,000. The equipment has an economic life of 6 years with no salvage value.
3.   Eubank depreciates similar machinery it owns on the sum-of-the-years'-digits basis.
4.   The lessee pays all executory costs.
5.   Eubank's incremental borrowing rate is 10% per year. The lessee is aware that the lessor used an implicit rate of 8% in computing the lease payments (present value factor for 4 periods at 8%, 3.31213; at 10%, 3.16986.
Instructions
(a)    Indicate the type of lease Eubank Company has entered into and what accounting treatment is applicable.
(b)    Prepare the journal entries on Eubank's books that relate to the lease agreement for the following dates: (Round all amounts to the nearest dollar. Include a partial amortization schedule.)
         1.    July 1, 2012.
         2.    December 31, 2012.
         3.    June 30, 2013.
         4.    December 31, 2013.
Pr. 21-119—Lessee accounting—capital lease.

Krause Company on January 1, 2013, enters into a five-year noncancelable lease, with four renewal options of one year each, for equipment having an estimated useful life of 10 years and a fair value to the lessor, Daly Corp., at the inception of the lease of $3,000,000. Krause's incremental borrowing rate is 8%. Krause uses the straight-line method to depreciate its assets. The lease contains the following provisions:
1.   Rental payments of $219,000 including $19,000 for property taxes, payable at the beginning of each six-month period.
2.   A termination penalty assuring renewal of the lease for a period of four years after expiration of the initial lease term.
3.   An option allowing the lessor to extend the lease one year beyond the last renewal exercised by the lessee.
4.   A guarantee by Krause Company that Daly Corp. will realize $100,000 from selling the asset at the expiration of the lease. However, the actual residual value is expected to be $60,000.
Instructions
(a)    What kind of lease is this to Krause Company?
(b)    What should be considered the lease term?
(c)    What are the minimum lease payments?
(d)    What is the present value of the minimum lease payments? (PV factor for annuity due of 20 semi-annual payments at 8% annual rate, 14.13394; PV factor for amount due in 20 interest periods at 8% annual rate, .45639.) (Round to nearest dollar.)
(e)    What journal entries would Krause record during the first year of the lease? (Include an amortization schedule through 1/1/14 and round to the nearest dollar.)
Pr. 21-120—Lessor accounting—direct-financing lease.

Lucas, Inc. enters into a lease agreement as lessor on January 1, 2013, to lease an airplane to National Airlines. The term of the noncancelable lease is eight years and payments are required at the end of each year. The following information relates to this agreement:
1.   National Airlines has the option to purchase the airplane for $12,000,000 when the lease expires at which time the fair value is expected to be $20,000,000.
2.   The airplane has a cost of $51,000,000 to Lucas, an estimated useful life of fourteen years, and a salvage value of zero at the end of that time (due to technological obsolescence).
3.   National Airlines will pay all executory costs related to the leased airplane.
4.   Annual year-end lease payments of $7,746,572 allow Lucas to earn an 8% return on its investment.
5.   Collectibility of the payments is reasonably predictable, and there are no important uncertainties surrounding the costs yet to be incurred by Lucas.
Instructions
(a)    What type of lease is this? Discuss.
(b)    Prepare a lease amortization schedule for the lessor for the first two years (2013-2014). (Round all amounts to nearest dollar.)
(c)    Prepare the journal entries on the books of the lessor to record the lease agreement, to reflect payments received under the lease, and to recognize income, for the years 2013 and 2014.