Solutions Manual and Test Bank Intermediate Accounting Kieso Weygandt Warfield 14th edition

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CHAPTER 11 DEPRECIATION, IMPAIRMENTS, AND DEPLETION


MULTIPLE CHOICE—Conceptual

21. The following is true of depreciation accounting.
a. It is not a matter of valuation.
b. It is part of the matching of revenues and expenses.
c. It retains funds by reducing income taxes and dividends.
d. All of these.

22. Which of the following principles best describes the conceptual rationale for the methods of matching depreciation expense with revenues?
a. Associating cause and effect
b. Systematic and rational allocation
c. Immediate recognition
d. Partial recognition

23. Depreciation accounting
a. provides funds.
b. funds replacements.
c. retains funds.
d. all of these.

24. Which of the following most accurately reflects the concept of depreciation as used in accounting?
a. The process of charging the decline in value of an economic resource to income in the period in which the benefit occurred.
b. The process of allocating the cost of tangible assets to expense in a systematic and rational manner to those periods expected to benefit from the use of the asset.
c. A method of allocating asset cost to an expense account in a manner which closely matches the physical deterioration of the tangible asset involved.
d. An accounting concept that allocates the portion of an asset used up during the year to the contra asset account for the purpose of properly recording the fair market value of tangible assets.


25. The major difference between the service life of an asset and its physical life is that
a. service life refers to the time an asset will be used by a company and physical life refers to how long the asset will last.
b. physical life is the life of an asset without consideration of salvage value and service life requires the use of salvage value.
c. physical life is always longer than service life.
d. service life refers to the length of time an asset is of use to its original owner, while physical life refers to how long the asset will be used by all owners.

P26. The term "depreciable base," or "depreciation base," as it is used in accounting, refers to
a. the total amount to be charged (debited) to expense over an asset's useful life.
b. the cost of the asset less the related depreciation recorded to date.
c. the estimated market value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
d. the acquisition cost of the asset.

27. Economic factors that shorten the service life of an asset include
a. obsolescence.
b. supersession.
c. inadequacy.
d. all of these.

28. Which of the following is not one of the basic questions that must be answered before the amount of depreciation charge can be computed?
a. What is the depreciation base to use for the asset?
b. What is the asset's useful life?
c. What method of cost apportionment is best for this asset?
d. What product or service is the asset related to?

S29. Which of the following is a realistic assumption of the straight-line method of depreciation?
a. The asset's economic usefulness is the same each year.
b. The repair and maintenance expense is essentially the same each period.
c. The rate of return analysis is enhanced using the straight-line method.
d. Depreciation is a function of time rather than a function of usage.

30. The activity method of depreciation
a. is a variable charge approach.
b. assumes that depreciation is a function of the passage of time.
c. conceptually associates cost in terms of input measures.
d. all of these.

31. For income statement purposes, depreciation is a variable expense if the depreciation method used is
a. units-of-production.
b. straight-line.
c. sum-of-the-years'-digits.
d. declining-balance.


32. If an industrial firm uses the units-of-production method for computing depreciation on its only plant asset, factory machinery, the credit to accumulated depreciation from period to period during the life of the firm will
a. be constant.
b. vary with unit sales.
c. vary with sales revenue.
d. vary with production.

33. Use of the double-declining balance method
a. results in a decreasing charge to depreciation expense.
b. means salvage value is not deducted in computing the depreciation base.
c. means the book value should not be reduced below salvage value.
d. all of these.

34. Use of the sum-of-the-years'-digits method
a. results in salvage value being ignored.
b. means the denominator is the years remaining at the beginning of the year.
c. means the book value should not be reduced below salvage value.
d. all of these.

35. A graph is set up with "yearly depreciation expense" on the vertical axis and "time" on the horizontal axis. Assuming linear relationships, how would the graphs for straight-line and sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation, respectively, be drawn?
a. Vertically and sloping down to the right
b. Vertically and sloping up to the right
c. Horizontally and sloping down to the right
d. Horizontally and sloping up to the right

36. A principal objection to the straight-line method of depreciation is that it
a. provides for the declining productivity of an aging asset.
b. ignores variations in the rate of asset use.
c. tends to result in a constant rate of return on a diminishing investment base.
d. gives smaller periodic write-offs than decreasing charge methods.

37. Each year a company has been investing an increasingly greater amount in machinery. Since there is a large number of small items with relatively similar useful lives, the company has been applying straight-line depreciation at a uniform rate to the machinery as a group. The ratio of this group's total accumulated depreciation to the total cost of the machinery has been steadily increasing and now stands at .75 to 1.00. The most likely explanation for this increasing ratio is the
a. company should have been using one of the accelerated methods of depreciation.
b. estimated average life of the machinery is less than the actual average useful life.
c. estimated average life of the machinery is greater than the actual average useful life.
d. company has been retiring fully depreciated machinery that should have remained in service.

38. For the composite method, the composite
a. rate is the total cost divided by the total annual depreciation.
b. rate is the total annual depreciation divided by the total depreciable cost.
c. life is the total cost divided by the total annual depreciation.
d. life is the total depreciable cost divided by the total annual depreciation.

P39. Watkins Truck Rental uses the group depreciation method for its fleet of trucks. When it retires one of its trucks and receives cash from a salvage company, the carrying value of property, plant, and equipment will be decreased by the
a. original cost of the truck.
b. original cost of the truck less the cash proceeds.
c. cash proceeds received.
d. cash proceeds received and original cost of the truck.

S40. Composite or group depreciation is a depreciation system whereby
a. the years of useful life of the various assets in the group are added together and the total divided by the number of items.
b. the cost of individual units within an asset group is charged to expense in the year a unit is retired from service.
c. a straight-line rate is computed by dividing the total of the annual depreciation expense for all assets in the group by the total cost of the assets.
d. the original cost of all items in a given group or class of assets is retained in the asset account and the cost of replace¬ments is charged to expense when they are acquired.

S41. When depreciation is computed for partial periods under a decreasing charge depreciation method, it is necessary to
a. charge a full year's depreciation to the year of acquisition.
b. determine depreciation expense for the full year and then prorate the expense between the two periods involved.
c. use the straight-line method for the year in which the asset is sold or otherwise disposed of.
d. use a salvage value equal to the first year's partial depreciation charge.

42. Depreciation is normally computed on the basis of the nearest
a. full month and to the nearest cent.
b. full month and to the nearest dollar.
c. day and to the nearest cent.
d. day and to the nearest dollar.

43. Myers Company acquired machinery on January 1, 2007 which it depreciated under the straight-line method with an estimated life of fifteen years and no salvage value. On January 1, 2012, Myers estimated that the remaining life of this machinery was six years with no salvage value. How should this change be accounted for by Myers?
a. As a prior period adjustment
b. As the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle in 2012
c. By setting future annual depreciation equal to one-sixth of the book value on January 1, 2012
d. By continuing to depreciate the machinery over the original fifteen year life

44. A change in estimate should
a. result in restatement of prior period statements.
b. be handled in current and future periods.
c. be handled in future periods only.
d. be handled retroactively.


45. Lynch Printing Company determines that a printing press used in its operations has suffered a permanent impairment in value because of technological changes. An entry to record the impairment should
a. recognize an extraordinary loss for the period.
b. include a credit to the equipment accumulated depreciation account.
c. include a credit to the equipment account.
d. not be made if the equipment is still being used.

46. Which of following is not a similarity in the accounting treatment for depreciation and cost depletion?
a. The estimated life is based on economic or productive life.
b. Assets subject to either are reported in the same classification on the balance sheet.
c. The rates may be changed upon revision of the estimated productive life used in the original rate computations.
d. Both depreciation and depletion are based on time.

47. Which of the following is not a difference between the accounting treatment for depreciation and cost depletion?
a. Depletion applies to natural resources while depreciation applies to plant and equipment.
b. Depletion refers to the physical exhaustion or consumption of the asset while depreciation refers to the wear, tear, and obsolescence of the asset.
c. Many formulas are used in computing depreciation but only one is used to any extent in computing depletion.
d. The cost of the asset is the starting point from which computation of the amount of the periodic charge is made to operations for depreciation, but the fair value reassessed each year as the starting point for the periodic charge for depletion.

48. Dividends representing a return of capital to stockholders are not uncommon among companies which
a. use accelerated depreciation methods.
b. use straight-line depreciation methods.
c. recognize both functional and physical factors in depreciation.
d. none of these.

49. Depletion expense
a. is usually part of cost of goods sold.
b. includes tangible equipment costs in the depletion base.
c. excludes intangible development costs from the depletion base.
d. excludes restoration costs from the depletion base.

50. The most common method of recording depletion for accounting purposes is the
a. percentage depletion method.
b. decreasing charge method.
c. straight-line method.
d. units-of-production method.


51. Reserve recognition accounting
a. is presently the generally accepted accounting method for financial reporting of oil and gas reserves.
b. is a historical cost method similar to the full cost approach and the successful efforts approach.
c. is used for reporting of oil and gas reserves for federal income tax purposes.
d. requires estimates of future production costs, the appropriate discount rate, and the expected selling price of oil and gas reserves.

S52. Of the following costs related to the develop¬ment of natural resources, which one is not a part of depletion cost?
a. Acquisition cost of the natural resource deposit
b. Exploration costs
c. Tangible equipment costs associated with machinery used to extract the natural resource
d. Intangible development costs such as drilling costs, tunnels, and shafts

S53. Which of the following disclosures is not required in the financial statements regarding depreciation?
a. Accumulated depreciation, either by major classes of depreciable assets or in total.
b. Details demonstrating how depreciation was calculated.
c. Depreciation expense for the period.
d. Balances of major classes of depreciable assets, by nature and function.

P54. The book value of a plant asset is
a. the fair market value of the asset at a balance sheet date.
b. the asset's acquisition cost less the total related depreciation recorded to date.
c. equal to the balance of the related accumulated depreciation account.
d. the assessed value of the asset for property tax purposes.

55. A general description of the depreciation methods applicable to major classes of depreciable assets
a. is not a current practice in financial reporting.
b. is not essential to a fair presentation of financial position.
c. is needed in financial reporting when company policy differs from income tax policy.
d. should be included in corporate financial statements or notes thereto.

56. The asset turnover ratio is computed by dividing
a. net income by ending total assets.
b. net income by average total assets.
c. net sales by ending total assets.
d. net sales by average total assets.

57. The rate of return on total assets is computed by dividing
a. Net income by ending total assets.
b. Net sales by average total assets.
c. Net sales by ending total assets.
d. Net income by average total assets.


*58. A major objective of MACRS for tax depreciation is to
a. reduce the amount of depreciation deduction on business firms' tax returns.
b. assure that the amount of depreciation for tax and book purposes will be the same.
c. help companies achieve a faster write-off of their capital assets.
d. require companies to use the actual economic lives of assets in calculating tax depreciation.

*59. Under MACRS, which one of the following is not considered in determining depreciation for tax purposes?
a. Cost of asset
b. Property recovery class
c. Half-year convention
d. Salvage value

*60. If income tax effects are ignored, accelerated depreciation methods
a. provide funds for the earlier replacement of fixed assets.
b. increase funds provided by operations.
c. tend to offset the effect of steadily increasing repair and maintenance costs on the income statement.
d. tend to decrease the fixed asset turnover ratio.


MULTIPLE CHOICE—Computational

61. Ferguson Company purchased a depreciable asset for $120,000. The estimated salvage value is $10,000, and the estimated useful life is 10 years. The straight-line method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation base of this asset?
a. $11,000
b. $12,000
c. $110,000
d. $120,000


62. Hamilton Company purchased a depreciable asset for $240,000. The estimated salvage value is $20,000, and the estimated useful life is 10 years. The straight-line method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation base of this asset?
a. $22,000
b. $24,000
c. $220,000
d. $240,000

63. Solar Products purchased a machine for $39,000 on July 1, 2012. The company intends to depreciate it over 4 years using the double-declining balance method. Salvage value is $3,000. Depreciation for 2012 is
a. $19,500
b. $9,750
c. $14,625
d. $9,000

64. Solar Products purchased a machine for $39,000 on July 1, 2012. The company intends to depreciate it over 4 years using the double-declining balance method. Salvage value is $3,000. Depreciation for 2013 is
a. $19,500
b. $9,750
c. $14,625
d. $9,000

65. Gardner Corporation purchased a truck at the beginning of 2012 for $90,000. The truck is estimated to have a salvage value of $3,600 and a useful life of 120,000 miles. It was driven 18,000 miles in 2012 and 32,000 miles in 2013. What is the depreciation expense for 2012?
a. $13,500
b. $12,960
c. $21,600
d. $36,000

66. Gardner Corporation purchased a truck at the beginning of 2012 for $90,000. The truck is estimated to have a salvage value of $3,600 and a useful life of 120,000 miles. It was driven 18,000 miles in 2012 and 32,000 miles in 2013. What is the depreciation expense for 2013?
a. $24,000
b. $36,000
c. $23,040
d. $38,400

67. Kinder Company purchased a depreciable asset for $280,000. The estimated salvage value is $14,000, and the estimated useful life is 10,000 hours. Kinder used the asset for 1,100 hours in the current year. The activity method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation expense on this asset?
a. $26,600
b. $29,260
c. $30,800
d. $266,000

68. Jamar Company purchased a depreciable asset for $225,000. The estimated salvage value is $15,000, and the estimated useful life is 8 years. The double-declining balance method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation expense for the second year on this asset?
a. $26,250
b. $39,375
c. $42,188
d. $56,250

69. Engels Company purchased a depreciable asset for $800,000. The estimated salvage value is $40,000, and the estimated useful life is 10,000 hours. Engels used the asset for 1,100 hours in the current year. The activity method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation expense on this asset?
a. $76,000
b. $83,600
c. $88,000
d. $760,000

70. Hart Company purchased a depreciable asset for $450,000. The estimated salvage value is $30,000, and the estimated useful life is 8 years. The double-declining balance method will be used for depreciation. What is the depreciation expense for the second year on this asset?
a. $52,500
b. $78,750
c. $84,375
d. $112,500

71. On July 1, 2012, Gonzalez Corporation purchased factory equipment for $225,000. Salvage value was estimated to be $6,000. The equipment will be depreciated over ten years using the double-declining balance method. Counting the year of acquisition as one-half year, Gonzalez should record depreciation expense for 2013 on this equipment of
a. $45,000.
b. $40,500.
c. $39,420.
d. $36,000.

72. Krause Corporation purchased factory equipment that was installed and put into service January 2, 2012, at a total cost of $120,000. Salvage value was estimated at $8,000. The equipment is being depreciated over four years using the double-declining balance method. For the year 2013, Krause should record depreciation expense on this equipment of
a. $28,000.
b. $30,000.
c. $56,000.
d. $60,000.

73. On April 13, 2012, Neill Co. purchased machinery for $168,000. Salvage value was estimated to be $7,000. The machinery will be depreciated over ten years using the double-declining balance method. If depreciation is computed on the basis of the nearest full month, Neill should record depreciation expense for 2013 on this machinery of
a. $29,120.
b. $28,560.
c. $28,770.
d. $29,306.
74. Matile Co. purchased machinery that was installed and ready for use on January 3, 2012, at a total cost of $115,000. Salvage value was estimated at $15,000. The machinery will be depreciated over five years using the double-declining balance method. For the year 2013, Matile should record depreciation expense on this machinery of
a. $24,000.
b. $27,600.
c. $30,000.
d. $46,000.

75. A plant asset has a cost of $32,000 and a salvage value of $8,000. The asset has a three-year life. If depreciation in the third year amounted to $4,000, which depreciation method was used?
a. Straight-line
b. Declining-balance
c. Sum-of-the-years'-digits
d. Cannot tell from information given

76. On January 1, 2012, Graham Company purchased a new machine for $2,800,000. The new machine has an estimated useful life of nine years and the salvage value was estimated to be $100,000. Depreciation was computed on the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. What amount should be shown in Graham's balance sheet at December 31, 2013, net of accumulated depreciation, for this machine?
a. $2,260,000
b. $1,780,000
c. $1,742,221
d. $1,659,000

77. On January 1, 2006, Forbes Company purchased equipment at a cost of $100,000. The equipment was estimated to have a salvage value of $10,000 and it is being depreciated over eight years under the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. What should be the charge for depreciation of this equipment for the year ended December 31, 2013?
a. $2,500
b. $2,778
c. $5,000
d. $11,250

78. On September 19, 2012, McCoy Co. purchased machinery for $285,000. Salvage value was estimated to be $15,000. The machinery will be depreciated over eight years using the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. If depreciation is computed on the basis of the nearest full month, McCoy should record depreciation expense for 2013 on this machinery of
a. $61,354.
b. $58,267.
c. $58,125.
d. $52,500.


79. On January 3, 2011, Munoz Co. purchased machinery. The machinery has an estimated useful life of eight years and an estimated salvage value of $60,000. The depreciation applicable to this machinery was $130,000 for 2013, computed by the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. The acquisition cost of the machinery was
a. $720,000.
b. $780,000.
c. $840,000.
d. $936,000.

80. On January 2, 2010, Stacy Company acquired equipment to be used in its manufacturing operations. The equipment has an estimated useful life of 10 years and an estimated salvage value of $30,000. The depreciation applicable to this equipment was $140,000 for 2013, computed under the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. What was the acquisition cost of the equipment?
a. $1,070,000
b. $1,130,000
c. $1,100,000
d. $1,083,333

81. Orton Corporation, which has a calendar year accounting period, purchased a new machine for $60,000 on April 1, 2008. At that time Orton expected to use the machine for nine years and then sell it for $6,000. The machine was sold for $33,000 on Sept. 30, 2013. Assuming straight-line depreciation, no depreciation in the year of acquisition, and a full year of depreciation in the year of retirement, the gain to be recognized at the time of sale would be
a. $6,000.
b. $4,500.
c. $3,000.
d. $0.

82. On January 1, 2012, the Accumulated Depreciation—Machinery account of a particular company showed a balance of $740,000. At the end of 2012, after the adjusting entries were posted, it showed a balance of $790,000. During 2012, one of the machines which cost $250,000 was sold for $121,000 cash. This resulted in a loss of $8,000. Assuming that no other assets were disposed of during the year, how much was depreciation expense for 2012?
a. $171,000
b. $187,000
c. $50,000
d. $121,000

83. During 2012, Noller Co. sold equipment that had cost $294,000 for $176,400. This resulted in a gain of $12,900. The balance in Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment was $975,000 on January 1, 2012, and $930,000 on December 31. No other equipment was disposed of during 2012. Depreciation expense for 2012 was
a. $45,000.
b. $57,900.
c. $85,500.
d. $175,500.


Use the following information for questions 84 and 85:
A schedule of machinery owned by Mallon Co. is presented below:
Estimated Estimated
Total Cost Salvage Value Life in Years
Machine A $260,000 $20,000 12
Machine C 390,000 30,000 10
Machine M 195,000 15,000 6
Mallon computes depreciation by the composite method.

84. The composite rate of depreciation (in percent) for these assets is
a. 10.18.
b. 10.77.
c. 11.03.
d. 11.67.

85. The composite life (in years) for these assets is
a. 9.1.
b. 9.3.
c. 9.8.
d. 10.0.

86. Stevenson Company purchased a depreciable asset for $350,000 on April 1, 2010. The estimated salvage value is $35,000, and the estimated useful life is 5 years. The straight-line method is used for depreciation. What is the balance in accumulated depreciation on May 1, 2013 when the asset is sold?
a. $126,000
b. $147,000
c. $173,250
d. $194,250

87. Williamson Corporation purchased a depreciable asset for $400,000 on January 1, 2010. The estimated salvage value is $40,000, and the estimated useful life is 9 years. The straight-line method is used for depreciation. In 2013, Williamson changed its estimates to a total useful life of 5 years with a salvage value of $60,000. What is 2013 depreciation expense?
a. $40,000
b. $60,000
c. $110,000
d. $120,000

88. Rollins Company purchased a depreciable asset for $500,000 on April 1, 2010. The estimated salvage value is $50,000, and the estimated total useful life is 5 years. The straight-line method is used for depreciation. What is the balance in accumulated depreciation on May 1, 2013 when the asset is sold?
a. $196,667
b. $210,000
c. $247,500
d. $277,500

89. Fanestil Corporation purchased a depreciable asset for $630,000 on January 1, 2010. The estimated salvage value is $63,000, and the estimated total useful life is 9 years. The straight-line method is used for depreciation. In 2013, Fanestill changed its estimates to a useful life of 5 years with a salvage value of $105,000. What is 2013 depreciation expense?
a. $63,000
b. $105,000
c. $168,000
d. $189,000

90. If Lawson, Inc. uses the composite method and its composite rate is 7.5% per year, what entry should it make when plant assets that originally cost $80,000 and have been used for 10 years are sold for $24,000?
a. Cash 24,000
Accumulated Depreciation - Plant Assets 56,000
Plant Assets 80,000
b. Cash 24,000
Loss on Sale of Plant Assets 56,000
Plant Assets 80,000
c. Cash 24,000
Accumulated Depreciation - Plant Assets 60,000
Plant Assets 80,000
Gain on Sale of Plant Assets  4,000
d. Cash 24,000
Plant Assets 24,000

91. Archer Company purchased equipment in January of 2002 for $150,000. The equipment was being depreciated on the straight-line method over an estimated useful life of 20 years, with no salvage value. At the beginning of 2012, when the equipment had been in use for 10 years, the company paid $25,000 to overhaul the equipment. As a result of this improvement, the company estimated that the useful life of the equipment would be extended an additional 5 years. What should be the depreciation expense recorded for this equipment in 2012.
a. $5,000
b. $6,667
c. $7,500
d. $9,167

Use the following information to answer questions 92 and 93.

Ebert Inc. owns the following assets:
Asset Cost Salvage Estimated Useful Life
A $140,000 $14,000 10 years
B 75,000 7,500 5 years
C  164,000 8,000 12 years

92. What is the composite depreciation rate of Ebert's assets?
a. 14.0%
b. 10.3%
c. 12.9%
d. 11.1%
93. What is the composite life of Ebert's assets?
a. 14.0 years
b. 9.7 years
c. 8.9 years
d. 10.3 years

94. Technique Co. has equipment with a carrying amount of $1,600,000. The expected future net cash flows from the equipment are $1,630,000, and its fair value is $1,360,000. The equipment is expected to be used in operations in the future. What amount (if any) should Technique report as an impairment to its equipment?
a. No impairment should be reported.
b. $240,000
c. $30,000
d. $270,000

95. Robertson Inc. bought a machine on January 1, 2002 for $400,000. The machine had an expected life of 20 years and was expected to have a salvage value of $40,000. On July 1, 2012, the company reviewed the potential of the machine and determined that its undiscounted future net cash flows totaled $200,000 and its discounted future net cash flows totaled $140,000. If no active market exists for the machine and the company does not plan to dispose of it, what should Robertson record as an impairment loss on July 1, 2012?
a. $         0
b. $11,000
c. $20,000
d. $71,000

96. Holcomb Corpsssoration owns machinery with a book value of $285,000. It is estimated that the machinery will generate future cash flows of $300,000. The machinery has a fair value of $210,000. Holcomb should recognize a loss on impairment of
a. $   -0-.
b. $15,000.
c. $75,000.
d. $90,000.

97. Kohlman Corporation owns machinery with a book value of $380,000. It is estimated that the machinery will generate future cash flows of $350,000. The machinery has a fair value of $280,000. Kohlman should recognize a loss on impairment of
a. $     -0-.
b. $  30,000.
c. $100,000.
d. $  70,000.

98. Marsh Corporation purchased a machine on July 1, 2010, for $1,250,000. The machine was estimated to have a useful life of 10 years with an estimated salvage value of $70,000. During 2013, it became apparent that the machine would become uneconomical after December 31, 2017, and that the machine would have no scrap value. Accumulated depreciation on this machine as of December 31, 2012, was $295,000. What should be the charge for depreciation in 2013 under generally accepted accounting principles?
a. $177,000
b. $191,000
c. $205,000
d. $238,750
99. Rivera Company purchased a tooling machine on January 3, 2006 for $700,000. The machine was being depreciated on the straight-line method over an estimated useful life of 10 years, with no salvage value. At the beginning of 2013, the company paid $175,000 to overhaul the machine. As a result of this improvement, the company estimated that the useful life of the machine would be extended an additional 5 years (15 years total). What should be the depreciation expense recorded for the machine in 2013?
a. $48,125
b. $58,333
c. $70,000
d. $77,000

100. Gates Co. purchased machinery on January 2, 2007, for $660,000. The straight-line method is used and useful life is estimated to be 10 years, with a $60,000 salvage value. At the beginning of 2013 Gates spent $144,000 to overhaul the machinery. After the overhaul, Gates estimated that the useful life would be extended 4 years (14 years total), and the salvage value would be $30,000. The depreciation expense for 2013 should be
a. $42,375.
b. $51,750.
c. $60,000.
d. $55,500.

101. Newell, Inc. purchased equipment in 2011 at a cost of $800,000. Two years later it became apparent to Newell, Inc. that this equipment had suffered an impairment of value. In early 2013, the book value of the asset is $480,000 and it is estimated that the fair value is now only $320,000. The entry to record the impairment is
a. No entry is necessary as a write-off violates the historical cost principle.
b. Retained Earnings 160,000
Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment 160,000
c. Loss on Impairment of Equipment 160,000
Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment 160,000
d. Retained Earnings 160,000
Reserve for Loss on Impairment of Equipment 160,000

102. Percy Resources Company acquired a tract of land containing an extractable natural resource. Percy is required by its purchase contract to restore the land to a condition suitable for recreational use after it has extracted the natural resource. Geological surveys estimate that the recoverable reserves will be 2,000,000 tons, and that the land will have a value of $1,000,000 after restoration. Relevant cost information follows:
Land $7,500,000
Estimated restoration costs 1,500,000
If Percy maintains no inventories of extracted material, what should be the charge to depletion expense per ton of extracted material?
a. $3.25
b. $3.75
c. $4.00
d. $4.50


103. In January, 2012, Yoder Corporation purchased a mineral mine for $5,100,000 with removable ore estimated by geological surveys at 2,000,000 tons. The property has an estimated value of $300,000 after the ore has been extracted. The company incurred $1,500,000 of development costs preparing the mine for production. During 2012, 500,000 tons were removed and 400,000 tons were sold. What is the amount of depletion that Yoder should expense for 2012?
a. $960,000
b. $1,200,000
c. $1,260,000
d. $1,680,000

104. During 2012, Eldred Corporation acquired a mineral mine for $3,000,000 of which $400,000 was ascribed to land value after the mineral has been removed. Geological surveys have indicated that 10 million units of the mineral could be extracted. During 2012, 1,500,000 units were extracted and 1,200,000 units were sold. What is the amount of depletion expensed for 2012?
a. $260,000.
b. $312,000.
c. $360,000.
d. $390,000.

105. In March, 2012, Maley Mines Co. purchased a coal mine for $8,000,000. Removable coal is estimated at 1,500,000 tons. Maley is required to restore the land at an estimated cost of $960,000, and the land should have a value of $840,000. The company incurred $2,000,000 of development costs preparing the mine for production. During 2012, 450,000 tons were removed and 300,000 tons were sold. The total amount of depletion that Maley should record for 2012 is
a. $1,832,000.
b. $2,024,000.
c. $2,748,000.
d. $3,036,000.

106. In 2004, Horton Company purchased a tract of land as a possible future plant site. In January, 2012, valuable sulphur deposits were discovered on adjoining property and Horton Company immediately began explorations on its property. In December, 2012, after incurring $800,000 in exploration costs, which were accumulated in an expense account, Horton discovered sulphur deposits appraised at $4,500,000 more than the value of the land. To record the discovery of the deposits, Horton should
a. make no entry.
b. debit $800,000 to an asset account.
c. debit $4,500,000 to an asset account.
d. debit $5,300,000 to an asset account.

107. Balcom Corporation acquires a coal mine at a cost of $1,500,000. Intangible development costs total $360,000. After extraction has occurred, Balcom must restore the property (estimated fair value of the obligation is $180,000), after which it can be sold for $510,000. Balcom estimates that 5,000 tons of coal can be extracted. What is the amount of depletion per ton?
a. $306
b. $510
c. $300
d. $372
108. Balcom Corporation acquires a coal mine at a cost of $1,500,000. Intangible development costs total $360,000. After extraction has occurred, Balcom must restore the property (estimated fair value of the obligation is $180,000), after which it can be sold for $510,000. Balcom estimates that 5,000 tons of coal can be extracted. If 900 tons are extracted the first year, which of the following would be included in the journal entry to record depletion?
a. Debit to Accumulated Depletion for $275,400
b. Debit to Inventory for $275,400
c. Credit to Inventory for $270,000
d. Credit to Accumulated Depletion for $459,000

109. In 2012, MegaStores reported net income of $5.7 billion, net sales of $164.7 billion, and average total assets of $61.0 billion. What is MegaStores' asset turnover ratio?
a. 0.37 times
b. 0.09 times.
c. 2.7 times.
d. 10.7 times.

110. In 2012, MegaStores reported net income of $5.7 billion, net sales of $164.7 billion, and average total assets of $61.0 billion. What is MegaStores' return on total assets?
a. 9.3%
b. 10.7%
c. 37.0%
d. 270%

Use the following information for questions 111 and 112:

For 2012, Hoyle Company reports beginning of the year total assets of $900,000, end of the year total assets of $1,100,000, net sales of $750,000, and net income of $150,000.

111. Hoyle’s 2012 asset turnover ratio is
a. 0.14 times.
b. 0.15 times.
c. 0.68 times.
d. 0.75 times.

112. The rate of return on assets for Hoyle in 2012 is
a. 12.0%.
b. 13.6%.
c. 15.0%.
d. 16.7%.

113. Markowitz Company reported the following data:
2012 2013
Sales $3,000,000 $3,900,000
Net Income 300,000 400,000
Assets at year end 1,800,000 2,500,000
Liabilities at year end 1,100,000 1,500,000
What is Markowitz’s asset turnover for 2013?
a. 1.56
b. 1.61
c. 1.81
d. 2.17
114. Froelich Company reported the following data:
2012 2013
Sales $3,000,000 $4,200,000
Net Income 300,000 400,000
Assets at year end 1,800,000 2,500,000
Liabilities at year end 1,100,000 1,500,000
What is Froelich’s asset turnover for 2013?
a. 1.68
b. 1.72
c. 1.95
d. 2.33


Use the following information for questions 115 and 116:

On January 1, 2012, Guzman Company purchased a machine costing $250,000. The machine is in the MACRS 5-year recovery class for tax purposes and has an estimated $50,000 salvage value at the end of its economic life.

*115. Assuming the company uses the general MACRS approach, the amount of MACRS deduction for tax purposes for the year 2012 is
a. $50,000.
b. $100,000.
c. $80,000.
d. $40,000.

*116. Assuming the company uses the optional straight-line method, the amount of MACRS deduction for tax purposes for the year 2012 is
a. $40,000.
b. $50,000.
c. $20,000.
d. $25,000.


MULTIPLE CHOICE—CPA Adapted

117. Pike Co. purchased a machine on July 1, 2012, for $800,000. The machine has an estimated useful life of five years and a salvage value of $160,000. The machine is being depreciated from the date of acquisition by the 150% declining-balance method. For the year ended December 31, 2012, Pike should record depreciation expense on this machine of
a. $240,000.
b. $160,000.
c. $120,000.
d. $96,000.

118. A machine with a five-year estimated useful life and an estimated 10% salvage value was acquired on January 1, 2011. The depreciation expense for 2013 using the double-declining balance method would be original cost multiplied by
a. 90% × 40% × 40%.
b. 60% × 60% × 40%.
c. 90% × 60% × 40%.
d. 40% × 40%.

119. On April 1, 2011, Verlin Co. purchased new machinery for $300,000. The machinery has an estimated useful life of five years, and depreciation is computed by the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. The accumulated depreciation on this machinery at March 31, 2013, should be
a. $200,000.
b. $180,000.
c. $120,000.
d. $100,000.

120. Hahn Co. takes a full year's depreciation expense in the year of an asset's acquisition and no depreciation expense in the year of disposition. Data relating to one of Hahn's depreciable assets at December 31, 2013 are as follows:
Acquisition year 2011
Cost $210,000
Residual value 30,000
Accumulated depreciation 144,000
Estimated useful life 5 years
Using the same depreciation method as used in 2011, 2012, and 2013, how much depreciation expense should Hahn record in 2014 for this asset?
a. $24,000
b. $36,000
c. $42,000
d. $48,000


121. A depreciable asset has an estimated 15% salvage value. At the end of its estimated useful life, the accumulated depreciation would equal the original cost of the asset under which of the following depreciation methods?
Straight-line Productive Output
a. Yes No
b. Yes Yes
c. No Yes
d. No No

122. Net income is understated if, in the first year, estimated salvage value is excluded from the depreciation computation when using the
Straight-line Production or
  Method Use Method
a. Yes No
b. Yes Yes
c. No No
d. No Yes

123. A plant asset with a five-year estimated useful life and no residual value is sold at the end of the second year of its useful life. How would using the sum-of-the-years'-digits method of depreciation instead of the double-declining balance method of depreciation affect a gain or loss on the sale of the plant asset?
    Gain     Loss
a. Decrease Decrease
b. Decrease Increase
c. Increase Decrease
d. Increase Increase

124. Giger Company acquired a tract of land containing an extractable natural resource. Giger is required by the purchase contract to restore the land to a condition suitable for recreational use after it has extracted the natural resource. Geological surveys estimate that the recoverable reserves will be 5,000,000 tons, and that the land will have a value of $800,000 after restoration. Relevant cost information follows:
Land $5,600,000
Estimated restoration costs 1,200,000
If Giger maintains no inventories of extracted material, what should be the charge to depletion expense per ton of extracted material?
a. $1.36
b. $1.20
c. $1.12
d. $0.96


125. In January 2012, Fehr Mining Corporation purchased a mineral mine for $6,300,000 with removable ore estimated by geological surveys at 2,500,000 tons. The property has an estimated value of $600,000 after the ore has been extracted. Fehr incurred $1,725,000 of development costs preparing the property for the extraction of ore. During 2012, 340,000 tons were removed and 300,000 tons were sold.  For the year ended December 31, 2012, Fehr should include what amount of depletion in its cost of goods sold?
a. $775,200
b. $684,000
c. $891,000
d. $1,009,800


EXERCISES

Ex. 11-126—Definitions.
Provide clear, concise answers for the following.
1. Define depreciation.

2. Define depreciation accounting.

3. Does depreciation accounting provide funds? If not, what does provide funds? What does depreciation accounting do related to funds?



Ex. 11-127—True or False.
Place T or F in front of each of the following statements.

1. The straight-line method of depreciation is based on the assumption that depreciation expense can be regarded as a constant function of time.

2. Plant assets should be written down (below cost) when their market value has declined temporarily.

3. The accounting profession has developed specifically recommended procedures for recording appraisal increases with respect to plant assets.

4. An asset's cost minus its accumulated depreciation equals its book value.

5. The sum-of-the-years'-digits method of depreciation ignores salvage value in the computation of an asset's depreciable base.

6. When using the double-declining balance method of determining depreciation, a declining percentage is applied to a constant book value.

7. The book value of plant assets initially declines more rapidly under decreasing-charge methods than under the straight-line method.

8. Accounting depreciation is computed by determining the change in the market value of a company's plant assets during the period under review.
9. The methods of depreciation based upon output assume that obsolescence will not significantly affect the usefulness of the asset.

10. The revision of prior periods' depreciation estimates would be disclosed on the retained earnings statement.




Ex. 11-128—Depreciation methods.
Each of the statements appearing below is descriptive of one or more of the following depreciation methods. In the spaces below, place the letter(s) belonging to the method(s) to which the statement best applies.
a. Declining-balance e. Sum-of-the-years'-digits
b. Group f. Units of output
c. Composite g. Working hours
d. Straight-line

1. The depreciation charged by this method decreases by the same amount each year.

2. These methods are used for depreciating multiple-asset accounts.

3. These methods allocate larger shares of the cost of a plant asset to expense during the years in which the greatest use is made of the asset.

4. These methods always allocate larger shares of the cost of a plant asset to expense during the earlier years of its life.

5. Once the depreciable base, scrap value, and life of a plant asset are determined, the annual charges to operations under this method will be the same.





Ex. 11-129—Calculate depreciation.
A machine which cost $300,000 is acquired on October 1, 2012. Its estimated salvage value is $30,000 and its expected life is eight years.

Instructions
Calculate depreciation expense for 2012 and 2013 by each of the following methods, showing the figures used.
(a) Double-declining balance
(b) Sum-of-the-years'-digits



Ex. 11-130—Calculate depreciation.
A machine cost $800,000 on April 1, 2012. Its estimated salvage value is $80,000 and its expected life is eight years.

Instructions
Calculate the depreciation expense (to the nearest dollar) by each of the following methods, showing the figures used.
(a) Straight-line for 2012
(b) Double-declining balance for 2013
(c) Sum-of-the-years'-digits for 2013




Ex. 11-131—Asset depreciation and disposition.
Answer each of the following questions.

1. A plant asset purchased for $250,000 has an estimated life of 10 years and a residual value of $20,000. Depreciation for the second year of use, determined by the declining-balance method at twice the straight-line rate is $_____________.

2. A plant asset purchased for $300,000 at the beginning of the year has an estimated life of 5 years and a residual value of $30,000. Depreciation for the second year, determined by the sum-of-the-years'-digits method is $______________.

3. A plant asset with a cost of $320,000 and accumulated depreciation of $90,000, is given together with cash of $120,000 in exchange for a similar asset worth $330,000. The gain or loss recognized on the disposal (indicate by "G" or "L") is $______________.

4. A plant asset with a cost of $270,000, estimated life of 5 years, and residual value of $45,000, is depreciated by the straight-line method. This asset is sold for $200,000 at the end of the second year of use. The gain or loss on the disposal (indicate by "G" or "L") is $___________.



Ex. 11-132—Composite depreciation.
Kemp Co. uses the composite method to depreciate its equipment. The following totals are for all of the equipment in the group:
Initial Residual Depreciable Depreciation
   Cost    Value     Cost   Per Year
$900,000 $100,000 $800,000 $80,000

Instructions
(a) What is the composite rate of depreciation?  (To nearest tenth of a percent.)
(b) A machine with a cost of $23,000 was sold for $14,000 at the end of the third year. What entry should be made?

Ex. 11-133—Depletion allowance.
Rojas Company purchased for $3,800,000 a mine estimated to contain 2 million tons of ore. When the ore is completely extracted, it was expected that the land would be worth $200,000. A building and equipment costing $1,800,000 were constructed on the mine site, and they will be completely used up and have no salvage value when the ore is exhausted. During the first year, 750,000 tons of ore were mined, and $300,000 was spent for labor and other operating costs.

Instructions
Compute the total cost per ton of ore mined in the first year.  (Show computations by setting up a schedule giving cost per ton.)

PROBLEMS

Pr. 11-134—Depreciation methods.
On July 1, 2012, Sparks Company purchased for $2,880,000 snow-making equipment having an estimated useful life of 5 years with an estimated salvage value of $120,000. Depreciation is taken for the portion of the year the asset is used.

Instructions
(a) Complete the form below by determining the depreciation expense and year-end book values for 2012 and 2013 using the
1. sum-of-the-years'-digits method.
2. double-declining balance method.
Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits Method     2012     2013
Equipment $2,880,000 $2,880,000
Less: Accumulated Depreciation
Year-End Book Value
Depreciation Expense for the Year
Double-Declining Balance Method
Equipment $2,880,000 $2,880,000
Less: Accumulated Depreciation
Year-End Book Value
Depreciation Expense for the Year

(b) Assume the company had used straight-line depreciation during 2012 and 2013. During 2014, the company determined that the equipment would be useful to the company for only one more year beyond 2014. Salvage value is estimated at $160,000. Compute the amount of depreciation expense for the 2014 income statement.

Pr. 11-135—Adjustment of Depreciable Base.
A truck was acquired on July 1, 2010, at a cost of $162,000. The truck had a six-year useful life and an estimated salvage value of $18,000. The straight-line method of depreciation was used. On January 1, 2013, the truck was overhauled at a cost of $15,000, which extended the useful life of the truck for an additional two years beyond that originally estimated (salvage value is still estimated at $18,000). In computing depreciation for annual adjustment purposes, expense is calculated for each month the asset is owned.

Instructions
Prepare the appropriate entries for January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013.


Pr. 11-136—Impairment.
Presented below is information related to equipment owned by Finley Company at December 31, 2012.
Cost $7,000,000
Accumlated depreciation to date    ,800,000
Expected future net cash flows  5,000,000
Fair value  3,400,000
Assume that Finley will continue to use this asset in the future. As of December 31, 2012, the equipment has a remaining useful life of 4 years.

Instructions
(a) Prepare the journal entry (if any) to record the impairment of the asset at December 31, 2012.
(b) Prepare the journal entry to record depreciation expense for 2013.
(c) The fair value of the equipment at December 31, 2013 is $4,100,000. Prepare the journal entry (if any) necessary to record this increase in fair value.



Pr. 11-137—Impairment.
Dexter Company uses special strapping equipment in its packaging business. The equipment was purchased in January 2011 for $8,000,000 and had an estimated useful life of 8 years with no salvage value. At December 31, 2012, new technology was introduced that would accelerate the obsolescence of Dexter’s equipment. Dexter’s controller estimates that expected future net cash flows on the equipment will be $5,000,000 and that the fair value of the equipment is $4,400,000. Dexter intends to continue using the equipment, but it is estimated that the remaining useful life is 4 years. Dexter uses straight-line depreciation.

Instructions
(a) Prepare the journal entry (if any) to record the impairment at December 31, 2012.
(b) Prepare any journal entries for the equipment at December 31, 2013. The fair value of the equipment at December 31, 2013, is estimated to be $4,600,000.
(c) Repeat the requirements for (a) and (b), assuming that Roland intends to dispose of the equipment and that it has not been disposed of as of December 31, 2013.



IFRS QUESTIONS

True / False

1. Under both IFRS and U.S. GAAP, interest costs incurred during construction must be capitalized.

2. As with U.S. GAAP, IFRS requires that both direct and indirect costs in self-constructed assets be capitalized.

3. IFRS, like U.S. GAAP, capitalizes all direct costs in self-constructed assets.

4. Even though IFRS does not employ the first-stage recoverability test used under U.S. GAAP  comparing the undiscounted cash flows to the carrying amount, the fact that IFRS uses a fair value test to measure impairment loss makes IFRS stricter than U.S. GAAP

5. U.S. GAAP, like IFRS permits write-up for subsequent recoveries of impairment, back up to the original amount before the impairment in all circumstances.

6. Unlike U.S. GAAP, interest costs incurred during construction are not capitalized under IFRS.

7. Asset revaluations are permitted under IFRS and U.S. GAAP.

8. In general, IFRS adheres to very different principles than U.S. GAAP.

9. U.S. GAAP, per SFAS No. 153, now requires that gains on exchanges of nonmonetary assets be recognized if the exchange lacks commercial substance.

10. IFRS permits the same depreciation methods as U.S GAAP, with the exception of the units-of-production method, which is not allowed under IFRS.



Multiple-Choice Questions

1. IFRS uses a fair value test to measure impairment loss. However, IFRS does not use the first-stage recoverability test under U.S. GAAP  comparing the undiscounted cash flow to the carrying amount. As a result, the IFRS test is
a. not as strict as U.S. GAAP.
b. more strict than U.S. GAAP.
c. essentially the same strictness as U.S. GAAP.
d. None of the above.

2. Acceptable depreciation methods under IFRS include
a. Straight-line.
b. Accelerated.
c. Units-of-production.
d. All of the above.

3. The primary IFRS related to property, plant and equipment is found in
a. IAS 1 and IAS 34.
b. IAS 11 and IAS 17.
c. IAS 16 and IAS 23.
d. IAS 27 and IAS 39.

4. The accounting exchanges of nonmonetary assets has recently converged between IFRS and U.S. GAAP, per SFAS No. 153, now requires
a. that gains on exchanges of nonmonetary assets be recognized if the exchange has commercial substance.
b. that gains on exchanges of nonmonetary assets be recognized if the exchange does not have commercial substance.
c. that gains on exchanges of nonmonetary assets be recognized if the exchange does not have commercial substance, and has never been impaired.
d. All of the above.

5. In measuring an impairment loss, IFRS uses
a. undiscounted cash flows.
b. discounted cash flows.
c. a fair value test.
d. a replacement value test.

6. IFRS permits companies to carry assets at historical cost or use a revaluation model for fixed assets. According to IAS 16, if revaluation is used:
1. it must be applied to all assets in a class of assets.
2. assets must be revalued on an annual basis.
3. assets must be depreciated on the straight-line basis.
4. salvage values must be zero.
a. 1 is correct
b. 2 is correct
c. 1 and 2 are correct
d. All are correct


Questions 7 through 10 are based on the following information:

Simpson Company applies revaluation accounting to plant assets with a carrying value of $1,600,000, a useful life of 4 years, and no salvage value. Depreciation is calculated on the straight-line basis. At the end of year 1, independent appraisers determine that the asset has a fair value of $1,500,000.

7. The journal entry to record depreciation for year one will include a
a. debit to Accumulated Depreciation for $400,000.
b. debit to Depreciation Expense for $100,000.
c. credit to Accumulated Depreciation for $100,000.
d. debit to Depreciation Expense for $400,000.

8. The journal entry to adjust the plant assets to fair value and record revaluation surplus in year one will include a
a. debit to Accumulated Depreciation for $100,000.
b. credit to Depreciation Expense for $300,000.
c. credit to Plant Assets for $300,000.
d. credit to Revaluation Surplus for $300,000.

9. The financial statements for year one will include the following information
a. Accumulated depreciation $400,000.
b. Depreciation expense $100,000.
c. Plant assets $1,500,000.
d. Revaluation surplus $100,000.

10. The entry to record depreciation for this same asset in year two will include a
a. debit to Accumulated Depreciation for $400,000.
b. debit to Depreciation Expense for $500,000.
c. credit to Accumulated Depreciation for $300,000.
d. debit to Depreciation Expense for $400,000.