Valuation of Inventories A Cost-Basis Approach

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Chapter 8 Valuation of Inventories A Cost-Basis Approach

QUESTIONS

1. In what ways are the inventory accounts of a retailing company different from those of a manufacturing company?
2. Why should inventories be included in (a) a statement of financial position and (b) the computation of net income?
3. What is the difference between a perpetual inventory and a physical inventory? If a company maintains a perpetual inventory, should its physical inventory at any date be equal to the amount indicated by the perpetual inventory records? Why?
4. Mishima, Inc. indicated in a recent annual report that approximately $19 million of merchandise was received on consignment. Should Mishima, Inc. report this amount on its balance sheet? Explain.
5. What is a product financing arrangement? How should product financing arrangements be reported in the financial statements?
6. Where, if at all, should the following items be classified on a balance sheet? (a) Goods out on approval to customers. (b) Goods in transit that were recently purchased f.o.b. destination. (c) Land held by a realty firm for sale. (d) Raw materials. (e) Goods received on consignment. (f) Manufacturing supplies.
7. At the balance sheet date, Clarkson Company held title to goods in transit amounting to $214,000. This amount was omitted from the purchases figure for the year and also from the ending inventory. What is the effect of this omission on the net income for the year as calculated when the books are closed? What is the effect on the company’s financial position as shown in its balance sheet? Is materiality a factor in determining whether an adjustment for this item should be made? 8. Define “cost” as applied to the valuation of inventories.
9. Distinguish between product costs and period costs as they relate to inventory.
10. Ford Motor Co. is considering alternate methods of accounting for the cash discounts it takes when paying suppliers promptly. One method suggested was to report these discounts as financial income when payments are made. Comment on the propriety of this approach.
11. Zonker Inc. purchases 500 units of an item at an invoice cost of $30,000. What is the cost per unit? If the goods are shipped f.o.b. shipping point and the freight bill was $1,500, what is the cost per unit if Zonker Inc. pays the freight charges? If these items were bought on 2/10, n/30 terms and the invoice and the freight bill were paid within the 10-day period, what would be the cost per unit?
12. Specific identification is sometimes said to be the ideal method of assigning cost to inventory and to cost of goods sold. Briefly indicate the arguments for and against this method of inventory valuation.
13. FIFO, weighted-average, and LIFO methods are often used instead of specific identification for inventory valuation purposes. Compare these methods with the specific identification method, discussing the theoretical propriety of each method in the determination of income and asset valuation.
14. How might a company obtain a price index in order to apply dollar-value LIFO?
15. Describe the LIFO double-extension method. Using the following information, compute the index at December 31, 2012, applying the double-extension method to a LIFO pool consisting of 25,500 units of product A and 10,350 units of product B. The base-year cost of product A is $10.20 and of product B is $37.00. The price at December 31, 2012, for product A is $21.00 and for product B is $45.60. (Round to two decimal places.)
16. As compared with the FIFO method of costing inventories, does the LIFO method result in a larger or smaller net income in a period of rising prices? What is the comparative effect on net income in a period of falling prices?
17. What is the dollar-value method of LIFO inventory valuation? What advantage does the dollar-value method have over the specific goods approach of LIFO inventory valuation? Why will the traditional LIFO inventory costing method and the dollar-value LIFO inventory costing method produce different inventory valuations if the composition of the inventory base changes?
18. Explain the following terms. (a) LIFO layer. (b) LIFO reserve. (c) LIFO effect.
19. On December 31, 2011, the inventory of Powhattan Company amounts to $800,000. During 2012, the company decides to use the dollar-value LIFO method of costing inventories. On December 31, 2012, the inventory is $1,053,000 at December 31, 2012, prices. Using the December 31, 2011, price level of 100 and the December 31, 2012, price level of 108, compute the inventory value at December 31, 2012, under the dollar-value LIFO method.
20. In an article that appeared in the Wall Street Journal, the phrases “phantom (paper) profits” and “high LIFO profits” through involuntary liquidation were used. Explain these phrases.


BE8-1 Included in the December 31 trial balance of Rivera Company are the following assets. Cash $ 190,000 Work in process $200,000 Equipment (net) 1,100,000 Receivables (net) 400,000 Prepaid insurance 41,000 Patents 110,000 Raw materials 335,000 Finished goods 170,000 Prepare the current assets section of the December 31 balance sheet.
BE8-2 Matlock Company uses a perpetual inventory system. Its beginning inventory consists of 50 units that cost $34 each. During June, the company purchased 150 units at $34 each, returned 6 units for credit, and sold 125 units at $50 each. Journalize the June transactions.
BE8-3 Stallman Company took a physical inventory on December 31 and determined that goods costing $200,000 were on hand. Not included in the physical count were $25,000 of goods purchased from Pelzer Corporation, f.o.b. shipping point, and $22,000 of goods sold to Alvarez Company for $30,000, f.o.b. destination. Both the Pelzer purchase and the Alvarez sale were in transit at year-end. What amount should Stallman report as its December 31 inventory?
BE8-4 Bienvenu Enterprises reported cost of goods sold for 2012 of $1,400,000 and retained earnings of $5,200,000 at December 31, 2012. Bienvenu later discovered that its ending inventories at December 31, 2011 and 2012, were overstated by $110,000 and $35,000, respectively. Determine the corrected amounts for 2012 cost of goods sold and December 31, 2012, retained earnings.
BE8-5 Amsterdam Company uses a periodic inventory system. For April, when the company sold 600 units, the following information is available. Units Unit Cost Total Cost April 1 inventory 250 $10 $ 2,500 April 15 purchase 400 12 4,800 April 23 purchase 350 13 4,550 1,000 $11,850 Compute the April 30 inventory and the April cost of goods sold using the average cost method.
BE8-6 Data for Amsterdam Company are presented in
BE8-5. Compute the April 30 inventory and the April cost of goods sold using the FIFO method.
BE8-7 Data for Amsterdam Company are presented in
BE8-5. Compute the April 30 inventory and the April cost of goods sold using the LIFO method.
BE8-8 Midori Company had ending inventory at end-of-year prices of $100,000 at December 31, 2011; $119,900 at December 31, 2012; and $134,560 at December 31, 2013. The year-end price indexes were 100 at 12/31/11, 110 at 12/31/12, and 116 at 12/31/13. Compute the ending inventory for Midori Company for 2011 through 2013 using the dollar-value LIFO method.
BE8-9 Arna, Inc. uses the dollar-value LIFO method of computing its inventory. Data for the past 3 years follow. Year Ended December 31 Inventory at Current-Year Cost Price Index 2011 $19,750 100 2012 22,140 108 2013 25,935 114
Instructions Compute the value of the 2012 and 2013 inventories using the dollar-value LIFO method. 1 EXERCI S E S
E8-1 (Inventoriable Costs) Presented below is a list of items that may or may not be reported as inventory in a company’s December 31 balance sheet. 1. Goods sold on an installment basis (bad debts can be reasonably estimated). 2. Goods out on consignment at another company’s store. 2 4 3 5 5 5 8 8 4 4 3. Goods purchased f.o.b. shipping point that are in transit at December 31. 4. Goods purchased f.o.b. destination that are in transit at December 31. 5. Goods sold to another company, for which our company has signed an agreement to repurchase at a set price that covers all costs related to the inventory. 6. Goods sold where large returns are predictable. 7. Goods sold f.o.b. shipping point that are in transit at December 31. 8. Freight charges on goods purchased. 9. Interest costs incurred for inventories that are routinely manufactured. 10. Materials on hand not yet placed into production by a manufacturing firm. 11. Costs incurred to advertise goods held for resale. 12. Office supplies. 13. Raw materials on which a manufacturing firm has started production, but which are not completely processed. 14. Factory supplies. 15. Goods held on consignment from another company. 16. Costs identified with units completed by a manufacturing firm, but not yet sold. 17. Goods sold f.o.b. destination that are in transit at December 31. 18. Short-term investments in stocks and bonds that will be resold in the near future.
Instructions Indicate which of these items would typically be reported as inventory in the financial statements. If an item should not be reported as inventory, indicate how it should be reported in the financial statements.
E8-2 (Inventoriable Costs) In your audit of Garza Company, you find that a physical inventory on December 31, 2012, showed merchandise with a cost of $441,000 was on hand at that date. You also discover the following items were all excluded from the $441,000. 1. Merchandise of $61,000 which is held by Garza on consignment. The consignor is the Bontemps Company. 2. Merchandise costing $33,000 which was shipped by Garza f.o.b. destination to a customer on December 31, 2012. The customer was expected to receive the merchandise on January 6, 2013. 3. Merchandise costing $46,000 which was shipped by Garza f.o.b. shipping point to a customer on December 29, 2012. The customer was scheduled to receive the merchandise on January 2, 2013. 4. Merchandise costing $73,000 shipped by a vendor f.o.b. destination on December 30, 2012, and received by Garza on January 4, 2013. 5. Merchandise costing $51,000 shipped by a vendor f.o.b. shipping point on December 31, 2012, and received by Garza on January 5, 2013.
Instructions Based on the above information, calculate the amount that should appear on Garza’s balance sheet at December 31, 2012, for inventory.
E8-3 (Inventoriable Costs) Assume that in an annual audit of Webber Inc. at December 31, 2012, you find the following transactions near the closing date. 1. A special machine, fabricated to order for a customer, was finished and specifically segregated in the back part of the shipping room on December 31, 2012. The customer was billed on that date and the machine excluded from inventory although it was shipped on January 4, 2013. 2. Merchandise costing $2,800 was received on January 3, 2013, and the related purchase invoice recorded January 5. The invoice showed the shipment was made on December 29, 2012, f.o.b. destination. 3. A packing case containing a product costing $3,400 was standing in the shipping room when the physical inventory was taken. It was not included in the inventory because it was marked “Hold for shipping
Instructions.” Your investigation revealed that the customer’s order was dated December 18, 2012, but that the case was shipped and the customer billed on January 10, 2013. The product was a stock item of your client. 4. Merchandise costing $720 was received on December 28, 2012, and the invoice was not recorded. You located it in the hands of the purchasing agent; it was marked “on consignment.” 5. Merchandise received on January 6, 2013, costing $680 was entered in the purchases journal on January 7, 2013. The invoice showed shipment was made f.o.b. supplier’s warehouse on December 31, 2012. Because it was not on hand at December 31, it was not included in inventory. 4  
Instructions Assuming that each of the amounts is material, state whether the merchandise should be included in the client’s inventory, and give your reason for your decision on each item.
E8-4 (Inventoriable Costs—Perpetual) Bradford Machine Company maintains a general ledger account for each class of inventory, debiting such accounts for increases during the period and crediting them for decreases. The transactions below relate to the Raw Materials inventory account, which is debited for materials purchased and credited for materials requisitioned for use. 1. An invoice for $8,100, terms f.o.b. destination, was received and entered January 2, 2013. The receiving report shows that the materials were received December 28, 2012. 2. Materials costing $7,300 were returned to the supplier on December 29, 2012, and were shipped f.o.b. shipping point. The return was entered on that date, even though the materials are not expected to reach the supplier’s place of business until January 6, 2013. 3. Materials costing $28,000, shipped f.o.b. destination, were not entered by December 31, 2012, “because they were in a railroad car on the company’s siding on that date and had not been unloaded.” 4. An invoice for $7,500, terms f.o.b. shipping point, was received and entered December 30, 2012. The receiving report shows that the materials were received January 4, 2013, and the bill of lading shows that they were shipped January 2, 2013. 5. Materials costing $19,800 were received December 30, 2012, but no entry was made for them because “they were ordered with a specified delivery of no earlier than January 10, 2013.”
Instructions Prepare correcting general journal entries required at December 31, 2012, assuming that the books have not been closed.
E8-5 (Inventoriable Costs—Error Adjustments) Werth Company asks you to review its December 31, 2012, inventory values and prepare the necessary adjustments to the books. The following information is given to you. 1. Werth uses the periodic method of recording inventory. A physical count reveals $234,890 of inventory on hand at December 31, 2012. 2. Not included in the physical count of inventory is $10,420 of merchandise purchased on December 15 from Browser. This merchandise was shipped f.o.b. shipping point on December 29 and arrived in January. The invoice arrived and was recorded on December 31. 3. Included in inventory is merchandise sold to Bubbey on December 30, f.o.b. destination. This merchandise was shipped after it was counted. The invoice was prepared and recorded as a sale on account for $12,800 on December 31. The merchandise cost $7,350, and Bubbey received it on January 3. 4. Included in inventory was merchandise received from Dudley on December 31 with an invoice price of $15,630. The merchandise was shipped f.o.b. destination. The invoice, which has not yet arrived, has not been recorded. 5. Not included in inventory is $8,540 of merchandise purchased from Minsky Industries. This merchandise was received on December 31 after the inventory had been counted. The invoice was received and recorded on December 30. 6. Included in inventory was $10,438 of inventory held by Werth on consignment from Jackel Industries. 7. Included in inventory is merchandise sold to Sims f.o.b. shipping point. This merchandise was shipped after it was counted. The invoice was prepared and recorded as a sale for $18,900 on December 31. The cost of this merchandise was $11,520, and Sims received the merchandise on January 5. 8. Excluded from inventory was a carton labeled “Please accept for credit.” This carton contains merchandise costing $1,500 which had been sold to a customer for $2,600. No entry had been made to the books to reflect the return, but none of the returned merchandise seemed damaged.
Instructions (a) Determine the proper inventory balance for Werth Company at December 31, 2012. (b) Prepare any correcting entries to adjust inventory to its proper amount at December 31, 2012. Assume the books have not been closed.
E8-6 (Determining Merchandise Amounts—Periodic) Two or more items are omitted in each of the following tabulations of income statement data. Fill in the amounts that are missing. 2 4 3 4 4 2011 2012 2013 Sales revenue $290,000 $ ? $410,000 Sales returns and allowances 6,000 13,000 ? Net sales ? 347,000 ? Beginning inventory 20,000 32,000 ? Ending inventory ? ? ? Purchases ? 260,000 298,000 Purchase returns and allowances 5,000 8,000 10,000 Freight-in 8,000 9,000 12,000 Cost of goods sold 238,000 ? 303,000 Gross profi t on sales 46,000 91,000 97,000
E8-7 (Purchases Recorded Net) Presented below are transactions related to Guillen, Inc. May 10 Purchased goods billed at $20,000 subject to cash discount terms of 2/10, n/60. 11 Purchased goods billed at $15,000 subject to terms of 1/15, n/30. 19 Paid invoice of May 10. 24 Purchased goods billed at $11,500 subject to cash discount terms of 2/10, n/30.
Instructions (a) Prepare general journal entries for the transactions above under the assumption that purchases are to be recorded at net amounts after cash discounts and that discounts lost are to be treated as financial expense. (b) Assuming no purchase or payment transactions other than those given above, prepare the adjusting entry required on May 31 if financial statements are to be prepared as of that date.
E8-8 (Purchases Recorded, Gross Method) Wizard Industries purchased $12,000 of merchandise on February 1, 2012, subject to a trade discount of 10% and with credit terms of 3/15, n/60. It returned $3,000 (gross price before trade or cash discount) on February 4. The invoice was paid on February 13.
Instructions (a) Assuming that Wizard uses the perpetual method for recording merchandise transactions, record the purchase, return, and payment using the gross method. (b) Assuming that Wizard uses the periodic method for recording merchandise transactions, record the purchase, return, and payment using the gross method. (c) At what amount would the purchase on February 1 be recorded if the net method were used?
E8-9 (Periodic versus Perpetual Entries) Chippewas Company sells one product. Presented below is information for January for Chippewas Company. Jan. 1 Inventory 100 units at $6 each 4 Sale 80 units at $8 each 11 Purchase 150 units at $6.50 each 13 Sale 120 units at $8.75 each 20 Purchase 160 units at $7 each 27 Sale 100 units at $9 each Chippewas uses the FIFO cost flow assumption. All purchases and sales are on account.
Instructions (a) Assume Chippewas uses a periodic system. Prepare all necessary journal entries, including the endof- month closing entry to record cost of goods sold. A physical count indicates that the ending inventory for January is 110 units. (b) Compute gross profit using the periodic system. (c) Assume Chippewas uses a perpetual system. Prepare all necessary journal entries. (d) Compute gross profit using the perpetual system.
E8-10 (Inventory Errors—Periodic) Thomason Company makes the following errors during the current year. (In all cases, assume ending inventory in the following year is correctly stated.) 1. Both ending inventory and purchases and related accounts payable are understated. (Assume this purchase was recorded and paid for in the following year.) 2. Ending inventory is overstated, but purchases and related accounts payable are recorded correctly. 3. Ending inventory is correct, but a purchase on account was not recorded. (Assume this purchase was recorded and paid for in the following year.)
Instructions Indicate the effect of each of these errors on working capital, current ratio (assume that the current ratio is greater than 1), retained earnings, and net income for the current year and the subsequent year. 4 4 2 5 3

E8-11 (Inventory Errors) At December 31, 2012, Dwight Corporation reported current assets of $390,000 and current liabilities of $200,000. The following items may have been recorded incorrectly. Dwight uses the periodic method. 1. Goods purchased costing $22,000 were shipped f.o.b. shipping point by a supplier on December 28. Dwight received and recorded the invoice on December 29, 2012, but the goods were not included in Dwight’s physical count of inventory because they were not received until January 4, 2013. 2. Goods purchased costing $20,000 were shipped f.o.b. destination by a supplier on December 26. Dwight received and recorded the invoice on December 31, but the goods were not included in Dwight’s 2012 physical count of inventory because they were not received until January 2, 2013. 3. Goods held on consignment from Kishi Company were included in Dwight’s December 31, 2012, physical count of inventory at $13,000. 4. Freight-in of $3,000 was debited to advertising expense on December 28, 2012.
Instructions (a) Compute the current ratio based on Dwight’s balance sheet. (b) Recompute the current ratio after corrections are made. (c) By what amount will income (before taxes) be adjusted up or down as a result of the corrections?
E8-12 (Inventory Errors) The net income per books of Adamson Company was determined without knowledge of the errors indicated below. Net Income Error in Ending Year per Books Inventory 2008 $50,000 Overstated $ 5,000 2009 52,000 Overstated 9,000 2010 54,000 Understated 11,000 2011 56,000 No error 2012 58,000 Understated 2,000 2013 60,000 Overstated 10,000
Instructions Prepare a worksheet to show the adjusted net income figure for each of the 6 years after taking into account the inventory errors.
E8-13 (FIFO and LIFO—Periodic and Perpetual) Inventory information for Part 311 of Seminole Corp. discloses the following information for the month of June. June 1 Balance 300 units @ $10 June 10 Sold 200 units @ $24 11 Purchased 800 units @ $11 15 Sold 500 units @ $25 20 Purchased 500 units @ $13 27 Sold 250 units @ $27
Instructions (a) Assuming that the periodic inventory method is used, compute the cost of goods sold and ending inventory under (1) LIFO and (2) FIFO. (b) Assuming that the perpetual inventory method is used and costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal, what is the value of the ending inventory at LIFO? (c) Assuming that the perpetual inventory method is used and costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal, what is the gross profit if the inventory is valued at FIFO? (d) Why is it stated that LIFO usually produces a lower gross profit than FIFO?
E8-14 (FIFO, LIFO, and Average Cost Determination) LoBianco Company’s record of transactions for the month of April was as follows. Purchases Sales April 1 (balance on hand) 600 @ $ 6.00 April 3 500 @ $10.00 4 1,500 @ 6.08 9 1,300 @ 10.00 8 800 @ 6.40 11 600 @ 11.00 13 1,200 @ 6.50 23 1,200 @ 11.00 21 700 @ 6.60 27 900 @ 12.00 29 500 @ 6.79 4,500 5,300
Instructions (a) Assuming that periodic inventory records are kept, compute the inventory at April 30 using (1) LIFO and (2) average cost. 3 3 2 5 5 (b) Assuming that perpetual inventory records are kept in both units and dollars, determine the inventory at April 30 using (1) FIFO and (2) LIFO. (c) Compute cost of goods sold assuming periodic inventory procedures and inventory priced at FIFO. (d) In an inflationary period, which inventory method—FIFO, LIFO, average cost—will show the highest net income?
E8-15 (FIFO, LIFO, Average Cost Inventory) Esplanade Company was formed on December 1, 2011. The following information is available from Esplanade’s inventory records for Product BAP. Units Unit Cost January 1, 2012 (beginning inventory) 600 $8.00 Purchases: January 5, 2012 1,100 9.00 January 25, 2012 1,300 10.00 February 16, 2012 800 11.00 March 26, 2012 600 12.00 A physical inventory on March 31, 2012, shows 1,500 units on hand.
Instructions Prepare schedules to compute the ending inventory at March 31, 2012, under each of the following inventory methods. (a) FIFO. (b) LIFO. (c) Weighted-average.
E8-16 (Compute FIFO, LIFO, Average Cost—Periodic) Presented below is information related to radios for the Couples Company for the month of July. Units Unit Units Selling Date Transaction In Cost Total Sold Price Total July 1 Balance 100 $4.10 $ 410 6 Purchase 800 4.30 3,440 7 Sale 300 $7.00 $ 2,100 10 Sale 300 7.30 2,190 12 Purchase 400 4.51 1,804 15 Sale 200 7.40 1,480 18 Purchase 300 4.60 1,380 22 Sale 400 7.40 2,960 25 Purchase 500 4.58 2,290 30 Sale 200 7.50 1,500 Totals 2,100 $9,324 1,400 $10,230
Instructions (a) Assuming that the periodic inventory method is used, compute the inventory cost at July 31 under each of the following cost flow assumptions. (1) FIFO. (2) LIFO. (3) Weighted-average. (b) Answer the following questions. (1) Which of the methods used above will yield the lowest figure for gross profit for the income statement? Explain why. (2) Which of the methods used above will yield the lowest figure for ending inventory for the balance sheet? Explain why.
E8-17 (FIFO and LIFO—Periodic and Perpetual) The following is a record of Cannondale Company’s transactions for Boston Teapots for the month of May 2012. May 1 Balance 400 units @ $20 May 10 Sale 300 units @ $38 12 Purchase 600 units @ $25 20 Sale 590 units @ $38 28 Purchase 400 units @ $30
Instructions (a) Assuming that perpetual inventories are not maintained and that a physical count at the end of the month shows 510 units on hand, what is the cost of the ending inventory using (1) FIFO and (2) LIFO? (b) Assuming that perpetual records are maintained and they tie into the general ledger, calculate the ending inventory using (1) FIFO and (2) LIFO. 5 5 2 5

E8-18 (FIFO and LIFO, Income Statement Presentation) The board of directors of Oksana Corporation is considering whether or not it should instruct the accounting department to change from a first-in, firstout (FIFO) basis of pricing inventories to a last-in, first-out (LIFO) basis. The following information is available. Sales 20,000 units @ $50 Inventory, January 1 6,000 units @ 20 Purchases 6,000 units @ 22 10,000 units @ 25 7,000 units @ 30 Inventory, December 31 9,000 units @ ? Operating expenses $200,000
Instructions Prepare a condensed income statement for the year on both bases for comparative purposes.
E8-19 (FIFO and LIFO Effects) You are the vice president of finance of Mickiewicz Corporation, a retail company that prepared two different schedules of gross margin for the first quarter ended March 31, 2012. These schedules appear below. Sales Cost of Gross ($5 per unit) Goods Sold Margin Schedule 1 $150,000 $124,900 $25,100 Schedule 2 150,000 129,600 20,400 The computation of cost of goods sold in each schedule is based on the following data. Cost Total Units per Unit Cost Beginning inventory, January 1 10,000 $4.00 $40,000 Purchase, January 10 8,000 4.20 33,600 Purchase, January 30 6,000 4.25 25,500 Purchase, February 11 9,000 4.30 38,700 Purchase, March 17 12,000 4.40 52,800 Peggy Fleming, the president of the corporation, cannot understand how two different gross margins can be computed from the same set of data. As the vice president of finance, you have explained to Ms. Fleming that the two schedules are based on different assumptions concerning the flow of inventory costs, i.e., FIFO and LIFO. Schedules 1 and 2 were not necessarily prepared in this sequence of cost flow assumptions.
Instructions Prepare two separate schedules computing cost of goods sold and supporting schedules showing the composition of the ending inventory under both cost flow assumptions (assume periodic system).
E8-20 (FIFO and LIFO—Periodic) Tom Brady Shop began operations on January 2, 2012. The following stock record card for footballs was taken from the records at the end of the year. Units Unit Invoice Gross Invoice Date Voucher Terms Received Cost Amount 1/15 10624 Net 30 50 $20 $1,000 3/15 11437 1/5, net 30 65 16 1,040 6/20 21332 1/10, net 30 90 15 1,350 9/12 27644 1/10, net 30 84 12 1,008 11/24 31269 1/10, net 30 76 11 836 Totals 365 $5,234 A physical inventory on December 31, 2012, reveals that 110 footballs were in stock. The bookkeeper informs you that all the discounts were taken. Assume that Tom Brady Shop uses the invoice price less discount for recording purchases.
Instructions (a) Compute the December 31, 2012, inventory using the FIFO method. (b) Compute the 2012 cost of goods sold using the LIFO method. (c) What method would you recommend to the owner to minimize income taxes in 2012, using the inventory information for footballs as a guide? 5 5 5
E8-21 (LIFO Effect) The following example was provided to encourage the use of the LIFO method. In a nutshell, LIFO subtracts inflation from inventory costs, deducts it from taxable income, and records it in a LIFO reserve account on the books. The LIFO benefit grows as inflation widens the gap between current-year and past-year (minus inflation) inventory costs. This gap is: With LIFO Without LIFO Revenues $3,200,000 $3,200,000 Cost of goods sold 2,800,000 2,800,000 Operating expenses 150,000 150,000 Operating income 250,000 250,000 LIFO adjustment 40,000 0 Taxable income $ 210,000 $ 250,000 Income taxes @ 36% $ 75,600 $ 90,000 Cash fl ow $ 174,400 $ 160,000 Extra cash $ 14,400 0 Increased cash fl ow 9% 0%
Instructions (a) Explain what is meant by the LIFO reserve account. (b) How does LIFO subtract inflation from inventory costs? (c) Explain how the cash flow of $174,400 in this example was computed. Explain why this amount may not be correct. (d) Why does a company that uses LIFO have extra cash? Explain whether this situation will always exist.
E8-22 (Alternative Inventory Methods—Comprehensive) Belanna Corporation began operations on December 1, 2012. The only inventory transaction in 2012 was the purchase of inventory on December 10, 2012, at a cost of $20 per unit. None of this inventory was sold in 2012. Relevant information is as follows. Ending inventory units December 31, 2012 100 December 31, 2013, by purchase date December 2, 2013 100 July 20, 2013 30 130 During the year, the following purchases and sales were made. Purchases Sales March 15 300 units at $24 April 10 200 July 20 300 units at 25 August 20 300 September 4 200 units at 28 November 18 170 December 2 100 units at 30 December 12 200 The company uses the periodic inventory method.
Instructions (a) Determine ending inventory under (1) specific identification, (2) FIFO, (3) LIFO, and (4) average cost. (Round unit cost to four decimal places.) (b) Determine ending inventory using dollar-value LIFO. Assume that the December 2, 2013, purchase cost is the current cost of inventory. (Hint: The beginning inventory is the base-layer priced at $20 per unit.)
E8-23 (Dollar-Value LIFO) Sisko Company has used the dollar-value LIFO method for inventory cost determination for many years. The following data were extracted from Sisko’s records. Price Ending Inventory Ending Inventory Date Index at Base Prices at Dollar-Value LIFO December 31, 2011 105 $92,000 $92,600 December 31, 2012 ? 98,000 99,200
Instructions Calculate the index used for 2012 that yielded the above results. 6 5 8 8
E8-24 (Dollar-Value LIFO) The dollar-value LIFO method was adopted by King Corp. on January 1, 2012. Its inventory on that date was $160,000. On December 31, 2012, the inventory at prices existing on that date amounted to $151,200. The price level at January 1, 2012, was 100, and the price level at December 31, 2012, was 112.
Instructions (a) Compute the amount of the inventory at December 31, 2012, under the dollar-value LIFO method. (b) On December 31, 2013, the inventory at prices existing on that date was $195,500, and the price level was 115. Compute the inventory on that date under the dollar-value LIFO method.
E8-25 (Dollar-Value LIFO) Presented below is information related to Martin Company. Ending Inventory Price Date (End-of-Year Prices) Index December 31, 2009 $ 80,000 100 December 31, 2010 111,300 105 December 31, 2011 108,000 120 December 31, 2012 122,200 130 December 31, 2013 147,000 140 December 31, 2014 176,900 145
Instructions Compute the ending inventory for Martin Company for 2009 through 2014 using the dollar-value LIFO method.
E8-26 (Dollar-Value LIFO) The following information relates to the Choctaw Company. Ending Inventory Price Date (End-of-Year Prices) Index December 31, 2009 $ 70,000 100 December 31, 2010 88,200 105 December 31, 2011 95,120 116 December 31, 2012 108,000 120 December 31, 2013 100,000 125
Instructions Use the dollar-value LIFO method to compute the ending inventory for Choctaw Company for 2009 through 2013.

P8-1 (Various Inventory Issues) The following independent situations relate to inventory accounting. 1. Kim Co. purchased goods with a list price of $175,000, subject to trade discounts of 20% and 10%, with no cash discounts allowable. How much should Kim Co. record as the cost of these goods? 2. Keillor Company’s inventory of $1,100,000 at December 31, 2012, was based on a physical count of goods priced at cost and before any year-end adjustments relating to the following items. (a) Goods shipped from a vendor f.o.b. shipping point on December 24, 2012, at an invoice cost of $69,000 to Keillor Company were received on January 4, 2013. (b) The physical count included $29,000 of goods billed to Sakic Corp. f.o.b. shipping point on December 31, 2012. The carrier picked up these goods on January 3, 2013. What amount should Keillor report as inventory on its balance sheet? 3. Zimmerman Corp. had 1,500 units of part M.O. on hand May 1, 2012, costing $21 each. Purchases of part M.O. during May were as follows. Units Units Cost May 9 2,000 $22.00 17 3,500 23.00 26 1,000 24.00 4 5 8 8 8 8 A physical count on May 31, 2012, shows 2,000 units of part M.O. on hand. Using the FIFO method, what is the cost of part M.O. inventory at May 31, 2012? Using the LIFO method, what is the inventory cost? Using the average cost method, what is the inventory cost? 4. Ashbrook Company adopted the dollar-value LIFO method on January 1, 2012 (using internal price indexes and multiple pools). The following data are available for inventory pool A for the 2 years following adoption of LIFO. At Base- At Current- Inventory Year Cost Year Cost 1/1/12 $200,000 $200,000 12/31/12 240,000 264,000 12/31/13 256,000 286,720 Computing an internal price index and using the dollar-value LIFO method, at what amount should the inventory be reported at December 31, 2013? 5. Donovan Inc., a retail store chain, had the following information in its general ledger for the year 2013. Merchandise purchased for resale $909,400 Interest on notes payable to vendors 8,700 Purchase returns 16,500 Freight-in 22,000 Freight-out 17,100 Cash discounts on purchases 6,800 What is Donovan’s inventoriable cost for 2013?
Instructions Answer each of the preceding questions about inventories, and explain your answers.
P8-2 (Inventory Adjustments) Dimitri Company, a manufacturer of small tools, provided the following information from its accounting records for the year ended December 31, 2012. Inventory at December 31, 2012 (based on physical count of goods in Dimitri’s plant, at cost, on December 31, 2012) $1,520,000 Accounts payable at December 31, 2012 1,200,000 Net sales (sales less sales returns) 8,150,000 Additional information is as follows. 1. Included in the physical count were tools billed to a customer f.o.b. shipping point on December 31, 2012. These tools had a cost of $31,000 and were billed at $40,000. The shipment was on Dimitri’s loading dock waiting to be picked up by the common carrier. 2. Goods were in transit from a vendor to Dimitri on December 31, 2012. The invoice cost was $76,000, and the goods were shipped f.o.b. shipping point on December 29, 2012. 3. Work in process inventory costing $30,000 was sent to an outside processor for plating on December 30, 2012. 4. Tools returned by customers and held pending inspection in the returned goods area on December 31, 2012, were not included in the physical count. On January 8, 2013, the tools costing $32,000 were inspected and returned to inventory. Credit memos totaling $47,000 were issued to the customers on the same date. 5. Tools shipped to a customer f.o.b. destination on December 26, 2012, were in transit at December 31, 2012, and had a cost of $26,000. Upon notification of receipt by the customer on January 2, 2013, Dimitri issued a sales invoice for $42,000. 6. Goods, with an invoice cost of $27,000, received from a vendor at 5:00 p.m. on December 31, 2012, were recorded on a receiving report dated January 2, 2013. The goods were not included in the physical count, but the invoice was included in accounts payable at December 31, 2012. 7. Goods received from a vendor on December 26, 2012, were included in the physical count. However, the related $56,000 vendor invoice was not included in accounts payable at December 31, 2012, because the accounts payable copy of the receiving report was lost. 8. On January 3, 2013, a monthly freight bill in the amount of $8,000 was received. The bill specifically related to merchandise purchased in December 2012, one-half of which was still in the inventory at December 31, 2012. The freight charges were not included in either the inventory or in accounts payable at December 31, 2012. 4
Instructions Using the format shown below, prepare a schedule of adjustments as of December 31, 2012, to the initial amounts per Dimitri’s accounting records. Show separately the effect, if any, of each of the eight transactions on the December 31, 2012, amounts. If the transactions would have no effect on the initial amount shown, enter NONE. Accounts Net Inventory Payable Sales Initial amounts $1,520,000 $1,200,000 $8,150,000 Adjustments—increase (decrease) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total adjustments Adjusted amounts $ $ $ (AICPA adapted)
P8-3 (Purchases Recorded Gross and Net) Some of the transactions of Torres Company during August are listed below. Torres uses the periodic inventory method. August 10 Purchased merchandise on account, $12,000, terms 2/10, n/30. 13 Returned part of the purchase of August 10, $1,200, and received credit on account. 15 Purchased merchandise on account, $16,000, terms 1/10, n/60. 25 Purchased merchandise on account, $20,000, terms 2/10, n/30. 28 Paid invoice of August 15 in full.
Instructions (a) Assuming that purchases are recorded at gross amounts and that discounts are to be recorded when taken: (1) Prepare general journal entries to record the transactions. (2) Describe how the various items would be shown in the financial statements. (b) Assuming that purchases are recorded at net amounts and that discounts lost are treated as financial expenses: (1) Prepare general journal entries to enter the transactions. (2) Prepare the adjusting entry necessary on August 31 if financial statements are to be prepared at that time. (3) Describe how the various items would be shown in the financial statements. (c) Which of the two methods do you prefer and why?
P8-4 (Compute FIFO, LIFO, and Average Cost) Hull Company’s record of transactions concerning part X for the month of April was as follows. Purchases Sales April 1 (balance on hand) 100 @ $5.00 April 5 300 4 400 @ 5.10 12 200 11 300 @ 5.30 27 800 18 200 @ 5.35 28 150 26 600 @ 5.60 30 200 @ 5.80
Instructions (a) Compute the inventory at April 30 on each of the following bases. Assume that perpetual inventory records are kept in units only. Carry unit costs to the nearest cent. (1) First-in, first-out (FIFO). (2) Last-in, first-out (LIFO). (3) Average cost. (b) If the perpetual inventory record is kept in dollars, and costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal, what amount would be shown as ending inventory in (1), (2), and (3) above? Carry average unit costs to four decimal places. 4 2 5
P8-5 (Compute FIFO, LIFO, and Average Cost) Some of the information found on a detail inventory card for Slatkin Inc. for the first month of operations is as follows. Received Issued, Balance, Date No. of Units Unit Cost No. of Units No. of Units January 2 1,200 $3.00 1,200 7 700 500 10 600 3.20 1,100 13 500 600 18 1,000 3.30 300 1,300 20 1,100 200 23 1,300 3.40 1,500 26 800 700 28 1,600 3.50 2,300 31 1,300 1,000
Instructions (a) From these data compute the ending inventory on each of the following bases. Assume that perpetual inventory records are kept in units only. Carry unit costs to the nearest cent and ending inventory to the nearest dollar. (1) First-in, first-out (FIFO). (2) Last-in, first-out (LIFO). (3) Average cost. (b) If the perpetual inventory record is kept in dollars, and costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal, would the amounts shown as ending inventory in (1), (2), and (3) above be the same? Explain and compute. (Round average unit costs to four decimal places.)
P8-6 (Compute FIFO, LIFO, Average Cost—Periodic and Perpetual) Ehlo Company is a multiproduct firm. Presented below is information concerning one of its products, the Hawkeye. Date Transaction Quantity Price/Cost 1/1 Beginning inventory 1,000 $12 2/4 Purchase 2,000 18 2/20 Sale 2,500 30 4/2 Purchase 3,000 23 11/4 Sale 2,200 33
Instructions Compute cost of goods sold, assuming Ehlo uses: (a) Periodic system, FIFO cost flow. (d) Perpetual system, LIFO cost flow. (b) Perpetual system, FIFO cost flow. (e) Periodic system, weighted-average cost flow. (c) Periodic system, LIFO cost flow. (f) Perpetual system, moving-average cost flow.
P8-7 (Financial Statement Effects of FIFO and LIFO) The management of Tritt Company has asked its accounting department to describe the effect upon the company’s financial position and its income statements of accounting for inventories on the LIFO rather than the FIFO basis during 2012 and 2013. The accounting department is to assume that the change to LIFO would have been effective on January 1, 2012, and that the initial LIFO base would have been the inventory value on December 31, 2011. Presented below are the company’s financial statements and other data for the years 2012 and 2013 when the FIFO method was employed. Financial Position as of 12/31/11 12/31/12 12/31/13 Cash $ 90,000 $130,000 $154,000 Accounts receivable 80,000 100,000 120,000 Inventory 120,000 140,000 176,000 Other assets 160,000 170,000 200,000 Total assets $450,000 $540,000 $650,000 Accounts payable $ 40,000 $ 60,000 $ 80,000 Other liabilities 70,000 80,000 110,000 Common stock 200,000 200,000 200,000 Retained earnings 140,000 200,000 260,000 Total liabilities and equity $450,000 $540,000 $650,000 2 5 2 5 5 Problems 481 482 Chapter 8 Valuation of Inventories: A Cost-Basis Approach Income for Years Ended 12/31/12 12/31/13 Sales revenue $900,000 $1,350,000 Less: Cost of goods sold 505,000 756,000 Other expenses 205,000 304,000 710,000 1,060,000 Income before income taxes 190,000 290,000 Income taxes (40%) 76,000 116,000 Net income $114,000 $ 174,000 Other data: 1. Inventory on hand at December 31, 2011, consisted of 40,000 units valued at $3.00 each. 2. Sales (all units sold at the same price in a given year): 2012—150,000 units @ $6.00 each 2013—180,000 units @ $7.50 each 3. Purchases (all units purchased at the same price in given year): 2012—150,000 units @ $3.50 each 2013—180,000 units @ $4.40 each 4. Income taxes at the effective rate of 40% are paid on December 31 each year.
Instructions Name the account(s) presented in the financial statements that would have different amounts for 2013 if LIFO rather than FIFO had been used, and state the new amount for each account that is named. Show computations. (CMA adapted)
P8-8 (Dollar-Value LIFO) Norman’s Televisions produces television sets in three categories: portable, midsize, and flat-screen. On January 1, 2012, Norman adopted dollar-value LIFO and decided to use a single inventory pool. The company’s January 1 inventory consists of: Category Quantity Cost per Unit Total Cost Portable 6,000 $100 $ 600,000 Midsize 8,000 250 2,000,000 Flat-screen 3,000 400 1,200,000 17,000 $3,800,000 During 2012, the company had the following purchases and sales. Quantity Quantity Selling Price Category Purchased Cost per Unit Sold per Unit Portable 15,000 $110 14,000 $150 Midsize 20,000 300 24,000 405 Flat-screen 10,000 500 6,000 600 45,000 44,000
Instructions (Round to four decimals.) (a) Compute ending inventory, cost of goods sold, and gross profit. (b) Assume the company uses three inventory pools instead of one. Repeat instruction (a).
P8-9 (Internal Indexes—Dollar-Value LIFO) On January 1, 2012, Bonanza Wholesalers Inc. adopted the dollar-value LIFO inventory method for income tax and external financial reporting purposes. However, Bonanza continued to use the FIFO inventory method for internal accounting and management purposes. In applying the LIFO method, Bonanza uses internal conversion price indexes and the multiple pools approach under which substantially identical inventory items are grouped into LIFO inventory pools. The following data were available for inventory pool no. 1, which comprises products A and B, for the 2 years following the adoption of LIFO. 8 8 FIFO Basis per Records Unit Total Units Cost Cost Inventory, 1/1/12 Product A 10,000 $30 $300,000 Product B 9,000 25 225,000 $525,000 Inventory, 12/31/12 Product A 17,000 36 $612,000 Product B 9,000 26 234,000 $846,000 Inventory, 12/31/13 Product A 13,000 40 $520,000 Product B 10,000 32 320,000 $840,000
Instructions (a) Prepare a schedule to compute the internal conversion price indexes for 2012 and 2013. Round indexes to two decimal places. (b) Prepare a schedule to compute the inventory amounts at December 31, 2012 and 2013, using the dollar-value LIFO inventory method. (AICPA adapted)
P8-10 (Internal Indexes—Dollar-Value LIFO) Presented below is information related to Kaisson Corporation for the last 3 years. Quantities Base-Year Cost Current-Year Cost in Ending Item Inventories Unit Cost Amount Unit Cost Amount December 31, 2011 A 9,000 $2.00 $18,000 $2.20 $19,800 B 6,000 3.00 18,000 3.55 21,300 C 4,000 5.00 20,000 5.40 21,600 Totals $56,000 $62,700 December 31, 2012 A 9,000 $2.00 $18,000 $2.60 $23,400 B 6,800 3.00 20,400 3.75 25,500 C 6,000 5.00 30,000 6.40 38,400 Totals $68,400 $87,300 December 31, 2013 A 8,000 $2.00 $16,000 $2.70 $21,600 B 8,000 3.00 24,000 4.00 32,000 C 6,000 5.00 30,000 6.20 37,200 Totals $70,000 $90,800
Instructions Compute the ending inventories under the dollar-value LIFO method for 2011, 2012, and 2013. The base period is January 1, 2011, and the beginning inventory cost at that date was $45,000. Compute indexes to two decimal places.
P8-11 (Dollar-Value LIFO) Richardson Company cans a variety of vegetable-type soups. Recently, the company decided to value its inventories using dollar-value LIFO pools. The clerk who accounts for inventories does not understand how to value the inventory pools using this new method, so, as a private consultant, you have been asked to teach him how this new method works. 8 8
He has provided you with the following information about purchases made over a 6-year period. Ending Inventory Date (End-of-Year Prices) Price Index Dec. 31, 2008 $ 80,000 100 Dec. 31, 2009 111,300 105 Dec. 31, 2010 108,000 120 Dec. 31, 2011 128,700 130 Dec. 31, 2012 147,000 140 Dec. 31, 2013 174,000 145 You have already explained to him how this inventory method is maintained, but he would feel better about it if you were to leave him detailed
Instructions explaining how these calculations are done and why he needs to put all inventories at a base-year value.
Instructions (a) Compute the ending inventory for Richardson Company for 2008 through 2013 using dollar-value LIFO. (b) Using your computation schedules as your illustration, write a step-by-step set of
Instructions explaining how the calculations are done. Begin your explanation by briefly explaining the theory behind this inventory method, including the purpose of putting all amounts into base-year price levels. CONCEPTS FOR

CA8-1 (Inventoriable Costs) You are asked to travel to Milwaukee to observe and verify the inventory of the Milwaukee branch of one of your clients. You arrive on Thursday, December 30, and find that the inventory procedures have just been started. You spot a railway car on the sidetrack at the unloading door and ask the warehouse superintendent, Buck Rogers, how he plans to inventory the contents of the car. He responds, “We are not going to include the contents in the inventory.” Later in the day, you ask the bookkeeper for the invoice on the carload and the related freight bill. The invoice lists the various items, prices, and extensions of the goods in the car. You note that the carload was shipped December 24 from Albuquerque, f.o.b. Albuquerque, and that the total invoice price of the goods in the car was $35,300. The freight bill called for a payment of $1,500. Terms were net 30 days. The bookkeeper affirms the fact that this invoice is to be held for recording in January.
Instructions (a) Does your client have a liability that should be recorded at December 31? Discuss. (b) Prepare a journal entry(ies), if required, to reflect any accounting adjustment required. Assume a perpetual inventory system is used by your client. (c) For what possible reason(s) might your client wish to postpone recording the transaction? CA8-2 (Inventoriable Costs) Frank Erlacher, an inventory control specialist, is interested in better understanding the accounting for inventories. Although Frank understands the more sophisticated computer inventory control systems, he has little knowledge of how inventory cost is determined. In studying the records of Strider Enterprises, which sells normal brand-name goods from its own store and on consignment through Chavez Inc., he asks you to answer the following questions.
Instructions (a) Should Strider Enterprises include in its inventory normal brand-name goods purchased from its suppliers but not yet received if the terms of purchase are f.o.b. shipping point (manufacturer’s plant)? Why? (b) Should Strider Enterprises include freight-in expenditures as an inventory cost? Why? (c) If Strider Enterprises purchases its goods on terms 2/10, net 30, should the purchases be recorded gross or net? Why? (d) What are products on consignment? How should they be reported in the financial statements? (AICPA adapted) CA8-3 (Inventoriable Costs) George Solti, the controller for Garrison Lumber Company, has recently hired you as assistant controller. He wishes to determine your expertise in the area of inventory accounting and therefore asks you to answer the following unrelated questions. (a) A company is involved in the wholesaling and retailing of automobile tires for foreign cars. Most of the inventory is imported, and it is valued on the company’s records at the actual inventory cost plus freight-in. At year-end, the warehousing costs are prorated over cost of goods sold and ending inventory. Are warehousing costs considered a product cost or a period cost? (b) A certain portion of a company’s “inventory” is composed of obsolete items. Should obsolete items that are not currently consumed in the production of “goods or services to be available for sale” be classified as part of inventory? (c) A company purchases airplanes for sale to others. However, until they are sold, the company charters and services the planes. What is the proper way to report these airplanes in the company’s financial statements? (d) A company wants to buy coal deposits but does not want the financing for the purchase to be reported on its financial statements. The company therefore establishes a trust to acquire the coal deposits. The company agrees to buy the coal over a certain period of time at specified prices. The trust is able to finance the coal purchase and pay off the loan as it is paid by the company for the minerals. How should this transaction be reported? CA8-4 (Accounting Treatment of Purchase Discounts) Shawnee Corp., a household appliances dealer, purchases its inventories from various suppliers. Shawnee has consistently stated its inventories at the lower of cost (FIFO) or market.
Instructions Shawnee is considering alternate methods of accounting for the cash discounts it takes when paying its suppliers promptly. From a theoretical standpoint, discuss the acceptability of each of the following methods. (a) Financial income when payments are made. (b) Reduction of cost of goods sold for the period when payments are made. (c) Direct reduction of purchase cost. (AICPA adapted) CA8-5 (General Inventory Issues) In January 2012, Susquehanna Inc. requested and secured permission from the commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service to compute inventories under the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method and elected to determine inventory cost under the dollar-value LIFO method. Susquehanna Inc. satisfied the commissioner that cost could be accurately determined by use of an index number computed from a representative sample selected from the company’s single inventory pool.
Instructions (a) Why should inventories be included in (1) a balance sheet and (2) the computation of net income? (b) The Internal Revenue Code allows some accountable events to be considered differently for income tax reporting purposes and financial accounting purposes, while other accountable events must be reported the same for both purposes. Discuss why it might be desirable to report some accountable events differently for financial accounting purposes than for income tax reporting purposes. (c) Discuss the ways and conditions under which the FIFO and LIFO inventory costing methods produce different inventory valuations. Do not discuss procedures for computing inventory cost. (AICPA adapted) CA8-6 (LIFO Inventory Advantages) Jane Yoakam, president of Estefan Co., recently read an article that claimed that at least 100 of the country’s largest 500 companies were either adopting or considering adopting the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for valuing inventories. The article stated that the firms were switching to LIFO to (1) neutralize the effect of inflation in their financial statements, (2) eliminate inventory profits, and (3) reduce income taxes. Ms. Yoakam wonders if the switch would benefit her company. Estefan currently uses the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method of inventory valuation in its periodic inventory system. The company has a high inventory turnover rate, and inventories represent a significant proportion of the assets. Ms. Yoakam has been told that the LIFO system is more costly to operate and will provide little benefit to companies with high turnover. She intends to use the inventory method that is best for the company in the long run rather than selecting a method just because it is the current fad.
Instructions (a) Explain to Ms. Yoakam what “inventory profits” are and how the LIFO method of inventory valuation could reduce them. (b) Explain to Ms. Yoakam the conditions that must exist for Estefan Co. to receive tax benefits from a switch to the LIFO method. CA8-7 (Average Cost, FIFO, and LIFO) Prepare a memorandum containing responses to the following items. (a) Describe the cost flow assumptions used in average cost, FIFO, and LIFO methods of inventory valuation. (b) Distinguish between weighted-average cost and moving-average cost for inventory costing purposes. (c) Identify the effects on both the balance sheet and the income statement of using the LIFO method instead of the FIFO method for inventory costing purposes over a substantial time period when purchase prices of inventoriable items are rising. State why these effects take place. CA8-8 (LIFO Application and Advantages) Geddes Corporation is a medium-sized manufacturing company with two divisions and three subsidiaries, all located in the United States. The Metallic Division manufactures metal castings for the automotive industry, and the Plastic Division produces small plastic items for electrical products and other uses. The three subsidiaries manufacture various products for other industrial users. Geddes Corporation plans to change from the lower of first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost or market method of inventory valuation to the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method of inventory valuation to obtain tax benefits. To make the method acceptable for tax purposes, the change also will be made for its annual financial statements.
Instructions (a) Describe the establishment of and subsequent pricing procedures for each of the following LIFO inventory methods. (1) LIFO applied to units of product when the periodic inventory system is used. (2) Application of the dollar-value method to LIFO units of product. (b) Discuss the specific advantages and disadvantages of using the dollar-value LIFO application as compared to specific goods LIFO (unit LIFO). Ignore income tax considerations. (c) Discuss the general advantages and disadvantages claimed for LIFO methods. CA8-9 (Dollar-Value LIFO Issues) Arruza Co. is considering switching from the specific-goods LIFO approach to the dollar-value LIFO approach. Because the financial personnel at Arruza know very little about dollar-value LIFO, they ask you to answer the following questions. (a) What is a LIFO pool? (b) Is it possible to use a LIFO pool concept and not use dollar-value LIFO? Explain. (c) What is a LIFO liquidation? (d) How are price indexes used in the dollar-value LIFO method? (e) What are the advantages of dollar-value LIFO over specific-goods LIFO? CA8-10 (FIFO and LIFO) Harrisburg Company is considering changing its inventory valuation method from FIFO to LIFO because of the potential tax savings. However, the management wishes to consider all of the effects on the company, including its reported performance, before making the final decision. The inventory account, currently valued on the FIFO basis, consists of 1,000,000 units at $8 per unit on January 1, 2012. There are 1,000,000 shares of common stock outstanding as of January 1, 2012, and the cash balance is $400,000. The company has made the following forecasts for the period 2012–2014. 2012 2013 2014 Unit sales (in millions of units) 1.1 1.0 1.3 Sales price per unit $10 $12 $12 Unit purchases (in millions of units) 1.0 1.1 1.2 Purchase price per unit $8 $9 $10 Annual depreciation (in thousands of dollars) $300 $300 $300 Cash dividends per share $0.15 $0.15 $0.15 Cash payments for additions to and replacement of plant and equipment (in thousands of dollars) $350 $350 $350 Income tax rate 40% 40% 40% Operating expenses (exclusive of depreciation) as a percent of sales 15% 15% 15% Common shares outstanding (in millions) 1 1 1
Instructions (a) Prepare a schedule that illustrates and compares the following data for Harrisburg Company under the FIFO and the LIFO inventory method for 2012–2014. Assume the company would begin LIFO at the beginning of 2012. (1) Year-end inventory balances. (3) Earnings per share. (2) Annual net income after taxes. (4) Cash balance. Assume all sales are collected in the year of sale and all purchases, operating expenses, and taxes are paid during the year incurred. (b) Using the data above, your answer to (a), and any additional issues you believe need to be considered, prepare a report that recommends whether or not Harrisburg Company should change to the LIFO inventory method. Support your conclusions with appropriate arguments. (CMA adapted) CA8-11 (LIFO Choices) Wilkens Company uses the LIFO method for inventory costing. In an effort to lower net income, company president Lenny Wilkens tells the plant accountant to take the unusual step of recommending to the purchasing department a large purchase of inventory at year-end. The price of the item to be purchased has nearly doubled during the year, and the item represents a major portion of inventory value.
Instructions Answer the following questions. (a) Identify the major stakeholders. If the plant accountant recommends the purchase, what are the consequences? (b) If Wilkens Company were using the FIFO method of inventory costing, would Lenny Wilkens give the same order? Why or why not?

FINANCIAL REPORTING Financial Statement Analysis Cases

Case 1 T J International T J International was founded in 1969 as Trus Joist International. The firm, a manufacturer of specialty building products, has its headquarters in Boise, Idaho. The company, through its partnership in the Trus Joist MacMillan joint venture, develops and manufactures engineered lumber. This product is a high- quality substitute for structural lumber, and uses lower-grade wood and materials formerly considered waste. The company also is majority owner of the Outlook Window Partnership, which is a consortium of three wood and vinyl window manufacturers. Following is T J International’s adapted income statement and information concerning inventories from its annual report. USING YOUR JUDGMENT
T J International Sales $618,876,000 Cost of goods sold 475,476,000 Gross profit 143,400,000 Selling and administrative expenses 102,112,000 Income from operations 41,288,000 Other expense 24,712,000 Income before income tax 16,576,000 Income taxes 7,728,000 Net income $ 8,848,000 Using Your Judgment 487
Instructions (a) How much would income before taxes have been if FIFO costing had been used to value all inventories? (b) If the income tax rate is 46.6%, what would income tax have been if FIFO costing had been used to value all inventories? In your opinion, is this difference in net income between the two methods material? Explain. (c) Does the use of a different costing system for different types of inventory mean that there is a different physical flow of goods among the different types of inventory? Explain.

Case 2 Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc., headquartered in Miami, Florida, describes itself in a recent annual report as follows. Inventories. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market and include material, labor, and production overhead costs. Inventories consisted of the following: Current Year Prior Year Finished goods $27,512,000 $23,830,000 Raw materials and work-in-progress 34,363,000 33,244,000 61,875,000 57,074,000 Reduction to LIFO cost (5,263,000) (3,993,000) $56,612,000 $53,081,000 The last-in, first-out (LIFO) method is used for determining the cost of lumber, veneer, Microllam lumber, TJI joists, and open web joists. Approximately 35 percent of total inventories at the end of the current year were valued using the LIFO method. The first-in, first-out (FIFO) method is used to determine the cost of all other inventories.
Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Noven is a place of ideas—a company where scientific excellence and state-of-the-art manufacturing combine to create new answers to human needs. Our transdermal delivery systems speed drugs painlessly and effortlessly into the bloodstream by means of a simple skin patch. This technology has proven applications in estrogen replacement, but at Noven we are developing a variety of systems incorporating bestselling drugs that fight everything from asthma, anxiety and dental pain to cancer, heart disease and neurological illness. Our research portfolio also includes new technologies, such as iontophoresis, in which drugs are delivered through the skin by means of electrical currents, as well as products that could satisfy broad consumer needs, such as our anti-microbial mouthrinse. Noven also reported in its annual report that its activities to date have consisted of product development efforts, some of which have been independent and some of which have been completed in conjunction with
Rhone-Poulenc Rorer (RPR) and Ciba-Geigy. The revenues so far have consisted of money received from licensing fees, “milestone” payments (payments made under licensing agreements when certain stages of the development of a certain product have been completed), and interest on its investments. The company expects that it will have significant revenue in the upcoming fiscal year from the launch of its first product, a transdermal estrogen delivery system. The current assets portion of Noven’s balance sheet follows. Cash and cash equivalents $12,070,272 Securities held to maturity 23,445,070 Inventory of supplies 1,264,553 Prepaid and other current assets 825,159 Total current assets $37,605,054 Inventory of supplies is recorded at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or net realizable value and consists mainly of supplies for research and development.
Instructions (a) What would you expect the physical fl ow of goods for a pharmaceutical manufacturer to be most like: FIFO, LIFO, or random (fl ow of goods does not follow a set pattern)? Explain. (b) What are some of the factors that Noven should consider as it selects an inventory measurement method? (c) Suppose that Noven had $49,000 in an inventory of transdermal estrogen delivery patches. These patches are from an initial production run, and will be sold during the coming year. Why do you think that this amount is not shown in a separate inventory account? In which of the accounts shown is the inventory likely to be? At what point will the inventory be transferred to a separate inventory account?

Case 3 SUPERVALU SUPERVALU reported the following data in its annual report. Feb. 23, Feb. 28, Feb. 27, 2008 2009 2010 Total revenues $44,048 $44,564 $40,597 Cost of sales (using LIFO) 33,943 34,451 31,444 Year-end inventories using FIFO 2,956 2,967 2,606 Year-end inventories using LIFO 2,776 2,709 2,342 (a) Compute SUPERVALU’s inventory turnover ratios for 2009 and 2010, using: (1) Cost of sales and LIFO inventory. (2) Cost of sales and FIFO inventory. (b) Some fi rms calculate inventory turnover using sales rather than cost of goods sold in the numerator. Calculate SUPERVALU’s 2009 and 2010 turnover, using: (1) Sales and LIFO inventory. (2) Sales and FIFO inventory. (c) Describe the method that SUPERVALU’s appears to use. (d) State which method you would choose to evaluate SUPERVALU’s performance. Justify your choice.

Accounting, Analysis, and Principles Englehart Company sells two types of pumps. One is large and is for commercial use. The other is smaller and is used in residential swimming pools. The following inventory data is available for the month of March. Price per Units Unit Total Residential Pumps Inventory at Feb. 28: 200 $ 400 $ 80,000 Purchases: March 10 500 $ 450 $225,000 March 20 400 $ 475 $190,000 March 30 300 $ 500 $150,000 Sales: March 15 500 $ 540 $270,000 March 25 400 $ 570 $228,000 Inventory at March 31: 500 Commercial Pumps Inventory at Feb. 28: 600 $ 800 $480,000 Purchases: March 3 600 $ 900 $540,000 March 12 300 $ 950 $285,000 March 21 500 $1,000 $500,000 Sales: March 18 900 $1,080 $972,000 March 29 600 $1,140 $684,000 Inventory at March 31: 500
(a) Assuming Englehart uses a periodic inventory system, determine the cost of inventory on hand at March 31 and the cost of goods sold for March under fi rst-in, fi rst-out (FIFO). (b) Assume Englehart uses dollar-value LIFO and one pool, consisting of the combination of residential and commercial pumps. Determine the cost of inventory on hand at March 31 and the cost of goods sold for March. Assume Englehart’s initial adoption of LIFO is on March 1. Use the double-extension method to determine the appropriate price indices. (Hint: The price index for February 28/March 1 should be 1.00.) (Round the index to three decimal places.)

Analysis (a) Assume you need to compute a current ratio for Englehart. Which inventory method (FIFO or dollar-value LIFO) do you think would give you a more meaningful current ratio? (b) Some of Englehart’s competitors use LIFO inventory costing and some use FIFO. How can an analyst compare the results of companies in an industry, when some use LIFO and others use FIFO?
Principles Can companies change from one inventory accounting method to another? If a company changes to an inventory accounting method used by most of its competitors, what are the trade-offs in terms of the conceptual framework discussed in Chapter 2 of the text?

BRIDGE TO THE PROFESSION
Professional Research: FASB Codifi cation In conducting year-end inventory counts, your audit team is debating the impact of the client’s right of return policy both on inventory valuation and revenue recognition. The assistant controller argues that there is no need to worry about the return policies since they have not changed in a while. The audit senior wants a more authoritative answer and has asked you to conduct some research of the authoritative literature, before she presses the point with the client.
Instructions If your school has a subscription to the FASB Codification, go to http://aaahq.org/asclogin.cfm to log in and prepare responses to the following. Provide Codification references for your responses. (a) What is the authoritative guidance for revenue recognition when right of return exists? (b) When is this guidance important for a company? (c) Sales with high rates of return can ultimately cause inventory to be misstated. Why are returns allowed? Should different industries be able to make different types of return policies? (d) In what situations would a reasonable estimate of returns be diffi cult to make?

Professional Simulation In this simulation, you are asked to address questions regarding inventory valuation and measurement. Prepare responses to all parts.  



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